Odysseus' second voyage, part IV                           PDF-download                                           

- part I:   Tenedos-Thanet and the Seirenes;
- part II:  Skulla, Charubdis -St. Michael's Mount
- part III: Thrinakia-Cornwall; the cattle of Helios
- part IV: Ogygia- Azores, Kalupso;
- part V:   Scheria-Lanzarote; Canaries, with the Faiakans (Faycáns)
- part VI: Ithaka-Cádiz, Jérez

In his first book the poet begins in the middle of an episode of the Odyssey in which Odysseus resides at Kalypso, with whom he was washed up after the shipwreck of his only remaining ship. In book 5 his seven-year stay is described in more detail.

Where is the island of Ogugia of the mysterious nymph Kalupso?

Let's start by listing Homer's data:

... an island surrounded by water, where the navel is of the sea.
    The island is densely wooded; a goddess lives in her rooms,
    daughter of Atlas who has all the knowledge, knows the depths of
    every sea and personally manages those long pillars, that
    keep earth and heaven separate. It is his daughter
    who detains that unlucky man to his great sorrow and
    she lulls him, constantly, with soft seductive words,
    intending him to forget Ithaka     (1,50 ff.)

- This fragment gives some indications: it is an island with water (litt.: streams, currents) around, 'where the navel is of the sea'. Furthermore, Kalypso turns out to be a daughter of Atlas, the god who manages the heavenly vault (echei), is traditionally associated with the Atlas Mountains and is the name giver of the Atlantic Ocean. Atlas is obviously important here because Homeros devotes multiple verses to him. His name is oloófron. This word is usually translated as "malevolent," which is utterly absurd, since with the same term Minos and Aietes are qualified, of whom the first is the son of Zeus and the wise chief judge in the Hades, while Aietes, son of Helios, the priest-king of the area around Kolchis, is the guardian of the Golden Fleece, the symbol of astronomical knowledge.  The right etymology is from (h)olofron- "he who knows everything in his brain". This is explained again by the following phrase: 'he knows the depths of each sea'. Knowledge of the sea, its depths and currents and ports was of vital importance for the navigation of the Atlantic people. An atlas is not called so for no reason! Furthermore, Homer says that he has the long struts (poles, columns) (echei) that keep heaven and earth separate. Atlas owns or manages these pole posts. So, we do not yet have the image of an Atlas carrying the celestial globe on his shoulders.1
- The cave of Kalupso is described in detail in book 5, in which Hermes visits Kalupso ordering her to let Odysseus go:

However, when he reached the island far away in the sea,
he left the dark water behind him, stepped ashore and
went on his way until he reached the vast cave where she
lived, the fair-haired nymph: he found her at home.
A great fire blazed on the hearth, and the scent of
burning cedar logs and juniper spread far across the
isle. She sat inside singing with her beautiful voice and,
moving to and fro at her loom, wove with a golden shuttle.  
Around the cave grew a lush copse of sweet pepper and
fig, paradise apples too with their delicious fragrance,
where winged birds were nesting, owls and falcons,
cormorants too with their long tongues
whose business is with the sea. Right around
    the hollow cave, a vine in lush growth
climbed up, heavy with clustered grapes. And
four neighbouring springs, channelled this way
and that, flowed with lime-white water.
Soft meadows bloomed everywhere with violets
and celery.              (5.55)

- The trees described in v.64 are traditionally translated as "poplar, alder and cypress". This is incorrect, because the epithet télethoösa means "lush green, always green" or "with rich fruits". The first two are neither lush nor always green. The kuparissos is described as "fragrant", which a cypress is not. Cailleux identifies the first tree, called klathra, as a citrus tree, because with that wood "klaters" (= rattles and castanets) were made. However, I think the Clethra arborea (sweet pepper tree) is meant, which is always green with peppery fruits. With the second, the (w)aigeiros, Homer means probably the fig, in Spanish Higuera or Figuera. The third name kuparissos is probably a Greek corruption of kupar or kopher (Hebrew), the lemon cedar or paradise apple that smells delicious and has edible fruit. So there are lush fruit trees around the cave and also vines so that Odysseus had enough to eat. Hermes is looking at it with surprise, something he would not do with ordinary alder or poplar. In addition, alder and poplar love wet soil and cypress dry soil, which can not be combined. Other trees are cedar and juniper (v.60).
- As far as fauna is concerned, some special birds are mentioned here: owls, falcons, cormorants.
- Furthermore, the poet speaks in v.70 of four sources with "white" water. Water is always referred to as "black" (drinking water and river water for example) so that the white water will undoubtedly be highly calcified. For example, in the Wantsum-channel of Thanet (Tenedos) Odysseus' companions beat the sea "white", an indication of the chalk cliffs of Albion, see Introduction Tenedos.
- In r.234, Odysseus gets access to a bronze axe, a smooth-sharpened (stone?) hand axe, and a drilling machine, required for shipbuilding. For this purpose, Odysseus also uses the wood storage of 'already a long time withered and dried tree trunks' mentioned in v.238.The lumber that is mentioned here consists of: - klethra, not the sweet pepper tree like around the cave, but the Clethra alnifolia ('with alder leaf') with which, according to the dictionaries, the alder is indicated. Alder wood is very suitable for the underwater ship; - aigeiros: now not the fig, of which coffins were made, but the aspen, which produces excellent deck wood; - elaté: fir or pine: for beams, masts and yards.
- Kalupso weaves and is busy with a golden shuttle through the loom. Hermes, in v.93, gets ambrosia and red nectar served, as Kalupso also uses (199). Both details occur elsewhere in the Odyssey too: Kirke is singing at the loom and in Ithaka where Odysseus arrives, there is a cave with looms too. Nectar and ambrosia, or corpse-tar and amber, are two substances that play a major role in the Odyssey. Both terms are linked to the religion of rebirth, see below.
- Distance from the mainland: indescribably large salt pool (100), dangerous and terribly large pool (175), far away in the sea (55) and no city or people in the vicinity. Odysseus was driven to Ogugia by the currents (waves, swell) and wind (v.109). There are no ships, oars and men on the island (141).

Given the above data, the island should, therefore, be centrally located in the Atlantic Ocean, far away from everything in an indescribably large pool of water. One of the islands of the Azores is the most eligible because this island group lies in the middle of the old and the new land and can, therefore, be seen as a "navel" (r.50). The daughters of Atlas, seven in total, are included  in the firmament as the Pleiades, an important constellation for navigation on the oceans.2 From Greek antiquity, people have wondered where Ogugia should lie. Of great importance here is a remark by Plutarch that Ogugia would be in the Atlantic Ocean, on five days sailing from Britain to the west and about 900 km from the vast mainland that encompasses the ocean. Because of the importance of this text, I'll give an extensive quote:3 (Sulla tells a story once told to him by a stranger from Carthage and thus acts as a kind of "actor" of someone else's story)
'I may just be the actor, but first I will tell - at least if there are no objections - how its creator started with a quote from Homer: 'Ogugia is an island that is far away in the sea' at five days sailing from Britain in a westerly direction4. There are three other islands just as far away and equally spaced from each other in the direction of the sunset in the summer. According to the indigenous population, on one of those islands Kronos was imprisoned by Zeus and the mythological Briareus resided, who kept watch over those islands and the sea around called the Kronos Sea. The vast mainland which surrounds the ocean is less far from these islands, but about 900 km from Ogugia, when rowing with rowing ships.'5

It is clear that Ogugia, the island of Kalupso, lies some five days sail west of Britain. The vast mainland cannot be anything other than America, the closest point being Newfoundland. More to the Northwest are three large islands according to Plutarch's source in a muddy sea, with many loose particles, which also often freezes. It is clear that the speaker does not have a clear picture of the Arctic Ocean with its icebergs and ice floes, but that it refers to Iceland, Greenland and other islands in the north. Apparently, from the earliest times, there were already Gallo-Germanic or Skythian settlements, marked with "indigenous population". However, the actual distance between the Azores and Newfoundland is more than 2000 km, between Britain and S. Miguel 2000 km, for which one needs seven days.

The etymologies of Ogugia are diverse but confirm the identification Ogugia-Azores. Wilkens sees the derivation Okeanos-gaia  = Oceanland, island in the ocean, which is of little significance. Cailleux has more imagination. In Iberian, açore means  'falcon, hawk', which Homer also specifically mentions among the birds of Ogugia (see above). Ogugia thus comes from the Gallo-Germanic (H)owk-aeghe = hawk-eye = hawk island, with which the identification as an Azores-island would be confirmed.6 In Sicily, the Asorii lived, depicted with a hawk or falcon (see plate), which would confirm Cailleux' etymology of the Azores. However, another etymology is also conceivable from sore, see below. Other attempts to explain the name are meaningless. The second bird mentioned by Homer on Ogugia, the cormorant (actually: dwarf cormorant), is referred to in Greek as koronai einaliai, which literally means "sea-crows". Well, one of the Azores is the island of Corvo that means "crow". In this way, the poet indicates with these two birds the area where Odysseus is located. Corvo has been identified by Cailleux as the island of Ailolos (see Odysseus' First Voyage, part 4).

Relative position
The position of Ogugia in relation to the outside world is indicated by Homeros in a number of places:
- 5.49: Homer tells here which route Hermes takes from Olumpos to Ogugia. Hermes - here referred to as the "Argos-killer", the god who killed Argos, the guardian of Io with his hundred eyes - goes from Olumpos to Piëria and then descends from the air to sea level where he, like a cormorant, crosses the waves to the distant island Ogugia. The Atlantic authors do not agree on the exact route. According to Cailleux, who puts forward the best arguments, the above route of Hermes is as follows: he departs from Stonehenge (Olumpos) across Piëria, the land of the "peers" in southern England, where Arthur also sat among his "pairs", a region full of druidic temples and Stone Age monuments. From Stonehenge, he goes in a straight line to San Miguel, Azores (Ogugia). For Piëria and the routes, see Introduction Hermes and Olumpos.
-5,229 where Kalupso's silver-white robe is mentioned. The long white robe of Kalypso (death garment) indicates, according to the consistent scheme of Wilkens (p.224,318), a direction that he must sail to arrive at his next destination, the Faiakans. It represents the constellation Virgo, indicating a southeastern course. After his arrival there, it is Nausikaä who takes over the role of Virgo and emphasizes the same course once again. On this basis, Ogugia must, therefore, be northwest of Scheria, that has been identified as Lanzarote. This position in relation to Scheria (Lanzarote) is confirmed by this fragment:

He watched the Pleiades, late-setting Bootes,
and the Great Bear that men call the Wain,
that circles in place and keeps an eye on Orion.
He is the only one that never bathes in Okeanos.
Kalupso, the lovely goddess had told him to keep
this constellation to larboard as he crossed the waters.
Seventeen days he sailed the seas, and on the eighteenth
the contours of dark peaks loomed up ahead belonging
to the Faiakan country, at a point that was nearest to him. (5,272 sq)

As stated in the Introduction Scheria, Odysseus must, departing from the island of Kalypso, keep the Great Bear or Wagon to the left, that is, heading east. This means that Ogugia must lie west or northwest of Scheria and at a distance of 17 days sailing. The distance Lanzarote - S.Miguel is about 1600 km, which gives an average speed of 4 km per hour, not very fast for a normal ship but it is conceivable for an inert raft.
-Furthermore I mention 12,447 ff., in which it is stated that Odysseus, after his shipwreck and the rescue by the fig tree of Charubdis (Thrinakia), drifts at sea for nine days before washing up with Kalypso.

From there, I drifted for nine days; on the tenth
night, gods brought me to the island of Ogugia, where Kalupso
lives with her lovely braids, the expert deity with very great authority. (12,447-450)

The distance from Thrinakia (Cornwall) to Ogugia (S. Miguel, Azores) is about 2100 km, which means an average speed of 5 knots. He is seated on his keel bar and mast, "led by gods" (448), which in Homeric terminology means that he is carried away by wind and current, but because of the number nine he is also helped by Nehalennia. Odysseus is apparently under the protection of Ennia (= nine), as he was before when he sailed from Schouwen to the Hades and was led by a divine force because he could just sit without doing anything (10,507). Now, this help from Nehalennia had actually been announced already by Kirke in 12,38: 'The deity herself will also help you to remember it', a sentence with which the commentators hardly know what to do or else they just skip it (Stanford). Homer has certainly had a purpose with it. Which deity is meant? What will she help him to remember? Nehalennia, as his guardian, will help him to remember Kirke's assignments, as she will later also help him as a castaway in the person of Ino (= Ennia).7
The direction for Odysseus to take, in order to sail from Cornwall to Ogugia, is south-west, which in the system of Wilkens is indicated by two constellations: Taurus (= WSW) and Gemini (SSW). This direction has been indicated by Homer in two ways. Firstly, the story of Helios' cattle at Thrinakia (Cornwall) indicates the direction Taurus and secondly, Kalupso forms with Kirke, as it were, twins, giving the course indication Gemini. Wilkens (p.302) points out that the description of Kalupso as "the expert deity with very great authority" is exactly the same as that with which Homer describes Kirke. So they seem to be twin sisters, which is also indicated by the functions of both nymph-gods, as we shall see.

Other data
If Ogugia is the Azores-island of S.Miguel, then all other data from Homer will have to be found there too, such as the cave of Kalupso with the various trees and the white spring water, the wood storage, the bronze and stone tools, the sailcloth and the absence of people.

The cave
In the northeast of San Miguel there is a large, wide cave where, in the past, stèlai were found with Phoenician inscriptions.8 The cave opening is 3.5 m high with the same width; the two columns found were approx. 4 m high and 1.50 m wide. On them, two large snakes were depicted and the following inscriptions: at the top on both stones MUTSAL; further on the one SARAHAL and on the other TALBIZ. These words can be traced back to Muths-Hol (=Cave; Muth is the Phoenician death god) = Death cave, Sor-hol = lizard cave (saurus= lizard) and Teel-biss = Rebirth snake, and point to a function in rebirth religion, described in Introduction Kirke, in which Kalupso also plays an important role, as will be explained below. The script used indicates that relations existed between the Azores and the Phoenicians. A professor and three co-workers who went into the cave to study it never returned, nor did a group of slaves ordered to go looking for them. Since then, they have bricked up the cave. In Cailleux's time, it was still a mess.

The environment of the cave
In Val de Furnas (about 10-15 km from the cave) dozens of springs with all kinds of chemical compositions and colours, some steaming hot, others cold, flow in all directions. This miraculous phenomenon is due to strong volcanic activities and the thin upper layer of the earth. Homer might have indicated these volcanic activities by the big fire on the hearth of Kalupso. It is, therefore, not surprising that Hermes, as a tourist, looks admiringly at all those beautiful sources, trees, plants and birds, which indeed all occur in the Azores. (5.73 ff.). However, Wilkens (p.306) sees no real sources in these four sources, but rather symbols of youth and innovation and also of teaching. The number four is the symbol of universality: they are the sources of wisdom. His view is closely related to the function of Kalupso in the story.

The essence of Kalupso
Who is this Kalypso? Her name is associated with the word kalupto-cover. She is a numfé, a nymph, a word associated with the Phoenician num -to sleep, and she dwells in vaulted caves. So she is a "covered grotto sleeper", a mummy, a shadow. Apparently, the distant location of the Azores gave the Gallo-Germanic poets the inspiration to come up with fairy-tale stories, as a result of which this sleeping cave dweller has been upgraded to an enchanting fairy with beautiful braids, a goddess that tries to win Odysseus with promises of immortality. He refuses to share eternal youth with her because he longs for his wife Penelope, but why does he stay there for seven years? The three major Atlantic authors agree that the Kalypso story, in addition to the narrative element and geographical route book, is an important part of the initiation process of the novice Odysseus. This fifth book deals with the ultimate test for Odysseus to endure before his final initiation.
The data we extract from the texts are the following. He is "caught" on a lonely, uninhabited island in the ocean by a nymph, a mummy wrapped in a shroud and embalmed with amber and/or tar. Since time immemorial, this embalming has been used for important dead; so we must conclude that Kalupso once was an important priestess who after her death was buried in a death cave on one of the Islands of the Blessed. Both Kalupso and Hermes must be regarded as "blessed gods", dead kings, legislators or priests, whose mummies constantly must be "nourished" with new ambrosia and nectar, amber and tar to prevent them for perishing.
Wilkens (p.306) also states that Kalupso is connected to the underworld just like Kirke, but sees an indication in the story that Odysseus is in a learning phase, just like he was at Kirke's: 'he is still in the Druid School'. This is plausible because the nymph Kalypso and the goddess Kirke are both referred to as 'expert deity with very great authority' (12,447). Just like Kirke, Kalupso is working at the loom, which is a symbolic representation of the learning process and the way to knowledge, and of the weaving of the new clothes for the newly initiated person.
So there are two possible interpretations of Kalupso that are partially intertwined: she is a dead person, a mummy in the cave where Odysseus lands, while all other events take place in the head of Odysseus, or she is equal to Kirke, the tutor in the religion and knowledge of  underworld and  rebirth, who gives him a seven-year training so that the voyage along the Seirenes, Skulla and Charubdis and Thrinakia is more like a 'description of the initiation experience, an intellectual and spiritual voyage' (Wilkens p.268). In the myth, she appears, in any case, as a divine appearance that promises Odysseus eternity, which, according to Cailleux (PA 242 ff.), in "reality" means that she wants to take him with her forever in her grave as her husband in order to be with him waiting for rebirth. The rebirth or mutation was often represented by a salamander, lizard (saurus) or snake, animals which change skin. These are exactly the names that appeared on the two stèlai in the cave, see above. The Flemish sore means 'dehydrated', which are mummies. The name Azores can also be traced back to A-Sores with added -a-, as is often the case in Spanish, and would then originally mean 'islands of the mummies or mutants', while later it has been considered a derivation of hawk or falcon (açore).

Jade hand axe (Stone Age),
from the Alps, found in Andalusia

Odysseus is absolutely alone, completely dependent on himself. There are no comrades that can accompany him home, no people, no city (v.16). If there are mummies in a cave despite the absence of humans, this means that the island was visited by seafarers to bury important dead in caves. Moreover, they cut down trees and stored them, undoubtedly to caulk vessels during the Atlantic crossings (v238). 'The for a long time already withered and dried tree trunks' indicate human activity. However, there was no fixed colony or settlement present. For seven years he sits there on the rocks mourning and crying, confronted with his loneliness and his subconsciousness, and experiences his midlife-crisis (Wilkens p.306), until the gods decide to help him with a bronze axe, a stone hand axe and a drilling machine with which he can build a raft. Hermes, the symbol of his own spiritual power after his mental depressions, suggests that plan. How does he suddenly get those tools in this deserted place? It is possible that in the lumber depot there were also bronze and/or stone tools that skippers could use for the caulking of their ships. Or he found bronze tools in coffins lying beside the mummies, meant for the resurrection so that the reborn persons could build a ship themselves. The wood storage is located on the "corner of the island", that is to say, seen from the place where the cave lies in the northeast, the other coast. It has to be a part of the coast than where ships could moor. This is Ponte Delgado, the only port of the island.

How does he get sails (v.253)? The raft has as rigging: 1 mast, 1 yard, sails (pl.!). Odysseus, therefore, has a yard sail and a foresail, as has already been demonstrated for normal ships in Introduction Shipping. From what material does he make sails on this uninhabited island? Kalypso comes forth with cloths, farea. The first meaning of faros is "shroud". So it seems that Odysseus takes away the shrouds of the mummies, preserved as they were with amber and tar, and made sailcloth of it! He then leaves without any guidance from man or god (v.32: Kalypso cannot help him and, in fact, as a mummy cannot do that; he has to invent everything himself!). And when he is at the mercy of the waves because of a ferocious hurricane and, completely naked, washes ashore with the Faiakans, he has endured his last trial, death by drowning, and has become an initiate who is welcomed by the Faiakans as a god (v.36).9

Azores already known in ancient times
For those who, despite all the arguments put forward, still doubt early human activities in the Azores,  I'll quote a fragment from Plutarchus' biography of the Spanish freedom fighter Sertorius, which shows that the distant islands were already known in 100 BC, and I'll discuss some archaeological discoveries.
Plutarch Sertorius c.8: '....... Sertorius sailed through the Strait of Gibraltar, after which he landed  on the faraway coast of Spain at starboard, a little to the north of the Baetis estuary, which ends in the Atlantic Ocean and gave its name to the Iberian area around it10 There he met some sailors who had just returned from the Atlantic islands: these are two islands separated by a very narrow street, some 1,800 km off the coast of Africa and are called "the Islands of Blessed". Because it does not rain often and only moderately and there are usually gentle, humid winds, the islands not only provide a fertile land that can be well ploughed and planted, but also produces wild fruits that because of their quantity and nutritional value are sufficient to feed the relaxed living population without effort or labour. Thanks to that climate and the moderate seasonal changes, the air is beneficial. The north and east winds, which blow from our countries into the ocean and end up in an immeasurable space, are scattered by the long distance and lose their strength, while the sea winds, which blow from the west or northwest over the islands, occasionally transport mild rain showers from the sea, but usually with cool breezes bring cool weather and feed the land constantly so that even among the barbarians a strong belief has penetrated that there are the Elusian Fields and lies the residence of the blissful gods, about which Homer sang.11 (9.) When Sertorius had heard that, he had a particularly strong desire to settle on those islands and live in peace, free from the dictatorship and the incessant wars. '

This fragment undoubtedly refers to the Azores, although they consist of many more than two islands. Two of them are separated by a narrow street: Horta and Fayal, and are located about 1800 km off the coast of Spain. The distance Spain-S.Miguel (Azores) is about 1400 km. Plutarch's climate description is strongly reminiscent of Homer's description of the beauty of the island of Kalupso, which Hermes admired12. That the islands were seen as the Elusian Fields or as the Islands of Blessed Gods confirmed the aforementioned description of the essence of Kalupso as a "blessed god", i.e. as a mummified important dead, or as a tutor in the religion of rebirth.

Symbol of Tanit

Apart from S. Miguel, six prehistoric, hewn caves were discovered on Terceira, probably serving as sanctuaries. There are channels for water supply, water basins and drainage, while the openings are directed towards the western islands of Pico and S.Jorge, where the sun sets during the spring and autumn equinoxes. Water for baptism and purificatuion rituals was an indispensable element in the Phoenician shrines where the goddess Astarte was worshipped, the moon goddess who took care of the lustration and rebirth, which also explains the shape of the cave: they are made in the shape of a womb. These sanctuaries are a surrogate for baptism in tidal rivers such as the Rhine, the Somme, the Seine, the Thames etc. The water that symbolizes the flood is poured into channels from above, flows over the head and body of the initiate or novice and flows out of the cave like a purifying ebb current. The shape of the caves is a trapezium, a symbol for the Phoenician goddess Tanit/Astarte, who was also worshipped in the Canaries.
A block of volcanic stone has also been found, which apparently served as a pedestal for a lost statue of a god, with an inscription in a readable alphabet but in an unknown Indo-European language. At Pico, cairns have been found, sometimes 10 meters high, reminiscent of a necropolis. For recent studies see H.O. p.782.13

Ogugia can for very good reasons be identified as S. Miguel, Azores. It lies like a navel in the middle of the Atlantic, indicated by Atlas, who is explicitly mentioned as the father of Kalupso. The different etymologies of Ogugia point to the Azores. The relative position in regard to Thrinakia and Scheria (Cornwall and Lanzarote respectively), the distances and course directions confirm this identification. The other data about the cave, flora and fauna are also in agreement with it. About the nature of Kalupso two interpretations are possible that are partly intertwined: she is a dead person, a mummy in the cave where Odysseus ends up, and all events take place in the head of Odysseus, or she is equal to Kirke, the tutor in religion and knowledge of underworld and rebirth, who gives him a seven-year education. Human activity on the island can be deduced from the wood storage and the presence of tools and is confirmed by the Sertorius-fragment of Plutarch and by recent publications on other prehistoric caves on various islands of the Azores.

1. See Introduction Olumpos
2.See map H.O p
3..Plutarch Moralia IX: Het mannetje op de maan, Leeuwarden 2011, c.26,  p.684 H.O.
4. Od, 7, 244.
5. The existence of this island of Kronos is confirmed by Plutarch in Moralia V: The decay of the oracles c.18, where the speaker Demetrios claims there are a lot of dispersed islands near England, some of which had names of gods and heroes and were inhabited by "holy men", undoubtedly druids. See also the Introduction Skulla , the introduction to Dictys Cretensis Diary of the Trojan War p.31-33 and W. Hamilton The Myth in Plutarch's The Facie in Class. Quart. 28 (1934).
6 .A.F.Gori Inscr. antiq. Graec. et Rom. Etruriae, Florence 1763, III,t
7. H.O. p.865.
8. A.Thévet Cosmographie universelle, 1575, XXIII,7 and PA 249 ff.; H.O. p.728.
9. See Introdutions Thema's Odyssee, Hermes, Scheria, Religie bij Homeros.
10.The Baetis is the Guadalquivir; the surrounding country is called Baetica.
11.Od. 4,563-68: the placement of the land of the dead in the Ocean (the Helle-sea) comes from the Celts. See I.J. Wilkens Where Troy once stood, Leeuwarden 2012.
12. Madeira, with which Konrad identifies them, is much closer (about 1000 km) and is about 50 km from the neighbouring island of Porto Santo. The Canaries do not match the climate description and are near the coast of Africa.
13 . (download).

Abbreviations used for the books of Th. Cailleux (1878):
OC  Origine celtique de la civilisation de tous les peuples
PH  Poésies d' Homère
PA   Pays Atlantiques, decrit par Homère
Citations of Homer: Roman cyphers = Ilias, e.g. XX,345; Arabic cyphers = Odyssey, e.g. 13,34.

Bibliography Atlantic authors:
Homeros Odyssee, by Gerard Janssen, Leeuwarden 2018
Gideon E. Troje lag in Engeland, Deventer 1991, reprint of Homerus, zanger der Kelten, 1973
Grave Ch.J. De  République des Champs Élysées, Gent 1806, 3 parts.
Vinci F. The Baltic Origins of Homer's Epic Tales, 2005
Wilkens I.J. Where Troy once stood, 1990,
                   Dutch: Waar eens Troje lag, 2015 Leeuwarden.

Series: Odysseus' First Voyage
- part 1: Troy- Gog Magog Hills, England
- part 2: Ismaros and the Kikonen - Brittany
- part 3: Lotophages - Senegal
- part 4: Cyclopes - Fogo, Madeira, Cameroon
- part 5: Aiolia andAiolos - Corvo (Azores)
- part 6: Laestrygones - Cuba, La Havana
- part 7: Aiaia and Kirke - Schouwen, Zeeland
- part 8: Hades-Walcheren, Zeeland

Series: Odysseus' Second Voyage
- part I:   Tenedos-Thanet and the Seirenes;
- part II:  Skulla, Charubdis -St. Michael's Mount
- part III: Thrinakia-Cornwall
- part IV: Ogygia- Azores, Kalupso;
- part V:   Scheria-Lanzarote;
- part VI: Ithaka-Cádiz, Jérez