Odysseus' Second Voyage, Part VI                                         

            Odysseus' second voyage
Legenda map
        I. Departure from Zeeland (Kirke) to the Seirenes on Tenedos (Thanet)
        II. Skulla and Charubdis at Mont St. Michael
        III. Thrinakia and the cattle of Helios
        IV. After shipwreck second trip to Charubdis and arrival at S.Miguel, the Azores with Kalupso
        V.  Departure per raft, raft rupture and arrival in Scheria = Lanzarote, Canaries, with the Faiakans (Faycáns)
        VI. Return trip by Faiakan taxi-ship and arrival at Ithaka in the Forkus-harbour (Cadiz, Jerez)

Geographical data
    All the princes who rule the islands,
Doulichiom, Same, and wooded Zakunthos,
and all the lords of rocky Ithaka here
court my mother and consume my wealth with their feasts. (1,245 sq.)

.......and clustered around it are many isles,
Doulichiom and Same and wooded Zakunthos. The last one
lies low in the sea, furthest towards the west,
while the others are separate, towards the dawn and the rising sun.
It’s a rugged land, but nurtures fine young men. (9,23 sq.)

The first fragment contains a combination of geographical indications that are often mentioned in the same breath: Ithaka and the islands of Zakunthos, Doulichion and Same. The mutual position is indicated in the second fragment: Zakunthos is furthest to the west, Doulichion and Same to the south-east. On these islands, certain nobles are in charge, but others are spread over Ithaka, which is apparently not counted among the islands and is so vast that several princes are in charge there. In 9,28 Ithaka is also called a gaia (land) and not a nésos (island). First of all, we'll discuss the islands mentioned.

Zakunthos is low and is the westernmost island. It is placed by Ptolemaios somewhere at the mouth of the Baetis. There still is a Torre de San Jacinto, in which the name Zakunthos lives on. It is indeed a low-lying island in Las Marismas, the wetlands of the Baetis. According to Homer, however, it is also 'woody' (1,246), from which Cailleux (PH 416) draws the conclusion that this does not mean "with rich forests", since it was a marshland, but that there was a city built on wooden poles in the sea, but far above it (panhypertaté -'in its whole very high '). This meaning is possible in Greek, but 'extreme' is more likely, that is to say, the island was on the extreme western point. Possibly this was even the location of ancient Tartessos (see map Jessen above and Wikiwand Tartessos). The extent of this former island in the Doñana Natural Park is not certain, perhaps it reached up to Mazagón, but it must at least be more westerly than Doulichion and Same. That this identification is correct may also appear from the following. The Greeks also called one of their islands in the Ionian Sea Zakunthos (Zante) and thought it was the Homeric Zakunthos. However, it is very uncomfortable for them that the islands of Same and Doulichion don't exist and that Zakunthos is completely south and not west of Theaki! According to the Greeks, Zakunthos was named after one Zakunthos, a Boeotian, who accompanied Herakles in Spain and helped steal Geryon's cattle. However, the legend of Herakles and Geryon by Herodotos and other classical authors in Spain is situated at the mouths of the Baetis. It thus seems that "Boeotian" indicates a "Baetian" who lived on the Baetis, specifically on Zakunthos near the Torre de S.Jacinto. In this, we can see a proof for the transfer of place names too.
From II, 631-37 it appears that Zakunthos together with Same, Ithaka, Neriton, Krokuleia and Aigilips formed the whole of the brotherhood of Kefallenians, who were led by Odysseus and jointly supplied (only) 12 ships. It is striking that Doulichion does not fall under Odysseus' realm.

Ithaka according to Cailleux

This island is listed separately in the Catalogue together with the "holy" Echinai Islands and is not included in Ithaka. The forty ships that supplied it were led by Meges. According to 14,335 Doulichion is close to Ithaka but has its own king, Akastos.
Opposite Doulichion (Il.2.625) lies Elis, which we have equated with Huelva and surroundings, see Introduction Elis (H.O). Anyone who looks out over the sea from Doulichion, for example from the Faro de Chipiona, sees Huelva in front of him, an ancient town that by some is equated with Tartessos.1 About Doulichion (s. map Dulichie), Cailleux reports that it is a former island, embraced by a branch of the Baetis, described by Pomponius Mela, Strabo and Pliny. This branch ran along Nebrissa (now Lebrija) and Jerez in the Bay of Cadiz (see map above). The two mouths were about 18 km apart until the Middle Ages2. Now it is no longer a delta but still very fertile ('rich in corn and grassland' 16,396). R. Ford writes, for example, that the traveller can see twenty oxen ploughing the ground in one plane at the same time.3 The name Doulichion can be traced back to dou-lichie - 'two lights'. The two lighthouses on the left bank of the Baetis are meant: Turris Capionis, which Strabo has seen and admired, and more to the north Luciferi Fanum, now Chipiona and San Lucar de Barrameda respectively, where two lighthouses still stand (PA 299, maps above). The "holy" Echinai islands have not been identified by Cailleux. Given the sacred nature, a monastery (castle) should have stood there, as in Palos. Wilkens considers them as islands in the Guadelete that have become part of the mainland because of silting and sees the sacred character in the name Bolaños, which occurs here and there around the bay of Cadiz and refers to Bolenos (Belen = Apollo). There must have been several islands in the mouth of the Baetis too, as is still indicated by the names Isla Mayor and Isla Menor, but a definitive identification cannot be given.

According to Wilkens (p.139), Samos was the peninsula on the north side of the bay where the city of Puerto Real now lies, and Ithaka the current island of Léon with the city of Cadiz, see map above. The following fragment makes this identification questionable:

But come, grant me a fast ship and a crew of twenty,
and I’ll lie in wait and look for him in the straits
between Ithaka and rocky Samos as he makes his passage,
and his voyage in search of his father will end sadly. (4,670 ff)

Antinoös asks the other suitors to provide a fast yacht with twenty rowers to keep up with the ship of Telemachos. He wants to patrol the straits between the rocky Samos and Ithaka. However, the bay between Puerto Real and Cadiz cannot be considered a "strait".

       In the middle of the sea, between Ithaka and stony Samos
       is a rocky island, Asteris, which is not so big,
       but has a double port in which toll vessels are located. (4,844 ff)

According to this fragment, Antinoös wants to keep watch in the porthmos ("strait" but also "ferry") between Ithaka and Samos, where an island Asteris lies with a harbor on two sides. Wilkens identifies that island between Samos (Puerto Real) and Cadiz as the island of Trocadero next to Puerto Real. This is not a logical place to be on guard. Although they can keep an eye on the mouth of the Guadelete, Telemachos can simply land at Cadiz or sail into the Petri Canal to reach home. Consequently, Wilkes identifications cannot last.

According to Cailleux it is the other way around: León is the ancient Same and the mainland around the bay up to Jerez is Ithaka. He, therefore, believes that the suitors will keep watch at the St.Petri channel near the island of Carraca, where there were also two ports, Carraca in the south and Puerto Real in the north and where there was a ferry by which the island of León and the city of Cadiz were connected with the mainland (map below). About Same of Samos, Cailleux says that in Roman times the name of the island of Léon was Junonia Insula. Juno, according to mythology, was born on Samos. These are sufficient arguments to argue that the island of Cadiz was called Samos (Same) in Homeric times.
The islet of Asteris (Carraca), which governs the access to the canal and whose size has been described by Pliny as 4.5 x 1.5 km, levied passage toll and import duties while the toll vessels (naulochoi from naulon - freightage) were lying in the two ports. The name Asteris also indicates this, because it can be derived from Gallo-German 'stuyr, steuer' -tax: with added -a- Astuyris> Asteris (PH 417 and PA 350). Carraca is also derived from a Homeric word: Korax petra, which should mean Korax on the Petri-channel (see notes H.O 13,409 and below). Asteris is also called petré-essa (r.845), which traditionally translates with the meaningless "full of stones, rocky". In view of the foregoing, the Greek word may be a corruption of Petre-ish - "located on the Petri-channel."

The conclusions with regard to the islands are:
-Zakunthos is the westernmost island with the Torre de S.Jacinto, that with Samos belonged to the realm of Ithaka.
-Doulichion is an independent kingdom and lay on the former island, surrounded by the two mouths of the Baetis. It is named after the two lighthouses or atalaya that stood on it.
-Samos of Same is the current island of Léon with the city of Cadiz, formerly called Junonian Samos, cut off from the mainland by the Petri-channel, see map below (seventeenth century).

Wilkens and Cailleux also think differently about Ithaka. As said before, Wilkens limits the territory of Ithaka to the island of Léon with the city of Cadiz, while Cailleux places the actual Ithaka on the mainland around the modern Jerez de la Frontera, which used to be called Asta. Greater Ithaka, however, included the islands of Same (Léon and Cadiz) and Zakunthos. Let's list the data about Ithaka.
- As mentioned above, Zakunthos, Same, Ithaka, Neriton, Krokuleia and Aigilips formed the whole of the brotherhood of Kefallenians. Krokuleia is possibly identifiable as Rocio in the Doñana nature park and Aigylips as Gilena or Guillena in the interior of Seville. What is meant by Neriton? Wilkens (p.155) relies on Cailleux, who claims that on Ptolemaios' map of South Celtiberia (2nd century AD) a city called Nertobriga (= Neriton-mountain) is mentioned and that this must have been El Real de Don Rodrigo, where the Visigoth king Roderick lost the battle of the Guadelete against the Moorish invaders about 710 AD. The problem, however, is that scholars disagree about the place of this battle. Medina Sidonia is mentioned by many recent studies as the place in question but also Arcos de la Frontera. Now, Ptolemaios' Nertobriga is located by most scholars at Fregenas (Badejoz), which is too far from Jerez and the Guadelete. Wilkens identifies the Neriton with a mountain on the island of Léon, where the city of San Fernando now lies. This can hardly be the 'beautiful mountain covered with swaying forest' (9,22). Two other mountains in the area are still eligible: the one that now houses Medina Sidonia (340 m) and Monte Gibalbin (410 m) near Lebrija, respectively at 31 and 47 km from Cadiz. In my view, Medina Sidonia seems the best option for the Neriton, since from that place Cadiz and the sea are clearly visible and therefore also vice versa: Medina Sidonia from Cadiz, as Homer tells us. So, the area of Neriton is located on the east side of the Guadelete (see map O.Jessen).
- The name "Kefallenians" can be derived from cavalleros (-horsemen, knights): they are the 'knights' of Ithaka, Neriton, Same, etc. For this reason, Kefallenia can also be called Great-Ithaka. It has also been reported above that apparently Ithaka is not counted among the islands (see eg 16,122) and is so extensive that several princes (aristoi) are in charge there.
- In 1,401 it says that Ithaka is amfialos. With the Greek island of Theaki in mind, this passage is always translated as Ithaka  'with sea all around''. This Greek word amfialos, however, is not the same as amfirutos -'with currents all around', which is used for islands. It literally means: 'with sea on both sides'. It seems that Homer wants to indicate the location of the area around Jerez with its associated islands Cadiz, Doulichion etc., situated between two seas, the Mediterranean Sea and the Ocean. After the street of Gibraltar this is the first country with cities, while the port of Cadiz forms the port of transit from Ocean to Mediterranean.

  I am Mentes, the son of the proud Anchialos.
  I am lord of the Tafians, people who love to row.
  I have just come downstream with my ship and crew
  sailing towards the dark sea to the Temese in a foreign country,
  where I want to exchange my load of glittering iron for bronze.
  My ship is moored to land, far from the city,
  in the Reithronbay, at the foot of the wooded Neion hill. (1,180 ff.)

This fragment indicates that Ithaka, and in particular Cadiz, is also a stopover for ships that sail up and down the Baetis.
- In 2,166 there is a remarkable qualification concerning Ithaka: eudeielon "beautiful in the evening sun". This qualification is very suitable for Cadiz which, as an island, is oriented and protrudes towards the west, and for the bay of Cadiz and the hinterland. The word is related to deielos (deilé) "in the evening". Another derivation is from idein -to see: 'well visible from afar', which also fits well. The Greek Theaki, which is traditionally regarded as Ithaka, is surrounded by other islands and does not protrude as a special island, 'clearly visible' or 'beautiful in the evening sun'.

- In 13.96 and 344 ff Homer gives us more details about Ithaka, at least the landing site where Odysseus is deposed. That is the Forkus-harbour (or -bay, see map Cailleux above) where two steep canopies stand out in the sea, gradually descending towards the harbour side, where there is no swell and the boats float on moorings. There is an olive tree at the head of the harbour. Nearby is a lovely, airy, marvellous cave of the Nejad nymphs where stone amphorae and mixing vessels act as beehives and where long stone looms are placed on which the nymphs weave dark or purple fabrics. Water flows through the cave and there are two openings, one to the north for people, the other to the south meant for the gods. For the cave and the looms, I refer to Introduction Religion in Homer. The location of the Forkus-harbour (or -bay) is interpreted differently by the authors. Cailleux (PA 273 and PH 411) believes that the ship travels between two capes, that of Cadiz and Rota on the Isle of Doulichion on the other side of the bay, and then enters the port / bay of Forkus, named after Los Puercos, rocks that at low tide are visible and lie just above Cadiz. Wilkens sees in the two capes the two protruding harbour jetties of Cadiz itself (p.134 ff.), of which the northern one is now largely under water (see pict.). De Grave sees in Forkus an etymology from fork, which would confirm the identification of Wilkens and Cailleux. After all, the capes protrude into the sea like a fork. In any case, the ship lands on an island (v.95). In v.238, however, Ithaka is again called "land" (gaia) instead of "island".
The solution to this chaos seems to be that with Ithaka the entire empire is indicated, consisting of mainland (Jerez, Medina Sidonia) and islands, while an island can be indicated either with its own name, for example Same of Zakunthos, or with that of the country, Ithaka, just as a landing on the Isle of Wight can also be regarded as an arrival in Britain. In Roman times this port was also called the Phorcys harbour, while Silius Italicus reports that in the army of Hannibal men from the Cadiz region were included who were led by an officer called Phorcys!4

    However, if you have reached the point of Ithaka, send the ship
        away to the city with all sailors on board, but you yourself have to
        visit the swineherd first, who is the supervisor of
        the pig farm and is still well disposed towards you. (15,36 sq.)

In this fragment, Athena advises Telemachos about his returntrip. The same Forkus harbour is called here the "Point of Ithaka" by Athena.5 The most protruding point of Great-Ithaka is indeed the island of Same with Cadiz, where Odysseus had just been put ashore. However, Telemachos does not go ashore in this port, but in the surf somewhere on the beach on the southwest side of Cadiz. For in 15,497 is not spoken of a "port" but of an "anchorage". Athenas says Telemachos has to send the ship to the city. This city cannot be Cadiz, because it is precisely located on this foremost point. With "city" Jerez (Asta)is meant, which corresponds to what has been said above. See map above.

In 17,23 ff, Odysseus, disguised as a beggar, gives an indication of the location of Ithaka City (Astu=Asta). It is about the phrase: 'The city, they said, is still far away'. Odysseus himself has just landed in Cadiz harbour, walked to Eumaios' farm and knows exactly how large the distance between the farm and Cadiz is, namely about 15 km. Moreover, he told Eumaios (14,345) that the Thesprotic pirates landed with him on the beach of Cadiz and that from there he was brought by a god to Eumaios' farm. The addition "they said" can only indicate that with astu (-city) not Cadiz is meant but another city, further away, in this case Asta (= Jerez), about 24 km. In v.196 there is the same kind of clue: the path they will take to the city is not known to Odysseus ('is very slippery, they said'), which means that he has a different path in mind than that to Cadiz, that is known to him.
A recurring remark about Ithaka (e.g. in 1,173) is that of the host who says: "I guess you have not come to Ithaka on foot." Commentators who embrace the Greek setting do not know what to do with this passage and consider it a faint joke of an islander. The comment, however, means that it is possible but not plausible that the guest has arrived on foot. For example, the guest does not look dusty, does not have a horse or cart with him. Most guests will have come to Cadiz or Jerez by sea or via the rivers. From 20,187 onwards it appears that there was a regular ferry service between the islands or the islands and the mainland, with which cattle could also be transported.6 The service existed in any case between Kefalonia and Ithaka (20,210), Kefalonia being the other side of the Guadelete. The island of Léon (Same) must also have had a ferry across the St.Petri-channel to the mainland of Neriton (Medina) because in 14,190 Eumaios assumes that Odysseus did not come to Ithaka on foot, which might be the case if he had used the ferry across the Petri-channel. In v.379 Eumaios speaks about an Aitolian murderer who would have come over land, which proves that Ithaka could be reached by land or by ferry across the Petri-channel. The possibility to come on foot thus excludes that Ithaka is an isolated island like Theaki in Greece!

    They handed over the dead from other cities to sailors,
        who had to take them home on board their fast ships. (24,418)

From this fragment, which concerns the death transport after the killing of the suitors, it appears that the dead from cities other than Jerez, those from the islands Same, Doulichion and Zakunthos, are handed over to sailors. From this, we can conclude that Ithaka itself was not an island but was on the mainland and that Cailleux's identification of it as Jerez or Asta was correct. In 24,442 Medon also only addresses the Ithakesians, because the people of the islands were not or not yet present to regret their dead.
An important passage for the positioning of Ithaka is this fragment (14,95 sq.):

His possessions and goods were really enormous: none of the heroes
possessed so much, neither in the dark interior nor in
Ithaka itself. The possessions of twenty men are together
not as big as his. I'll give you a list of it.
There are twelve cattle herds grazing in the interior and just
as many flocks of sheep and droves of swine and roving herds of goats,
all tended by strangers and own personnel.

Here two areas seem to be opposite each other: Ithaka itself and épeiros (-mainland or inland). When one considers épeiros as "mainland", then Ithaka is apparently the name of the small island of Léon where Eumaios' farm stands and Epeiros would be the mainland on the other side of the Petri- channel or of the bay of Cadiz, where Chiclana de Frontera is now. However, if the contrast between the interior and Ithaka is indicated here, Ithaka stands for the proper kingdom of Odysseus, Great-Ithaka, and Léon falls under this realm, including Zakunthos and the mainland of Jerez and Medina Sidonia. In addition to all the arguments already mentioned, we can argue against the limited Ithaka (Léon), that in that case Odysseus would be king over a very small area, while he would have some 48 herds grazing on the non-Ithaka-related mainland. Moreover, it is dangerous for a king to have his residence close to the sea in Cadiz, without having a refuge, an acropolis or even an escape route to the mainland. Arguments for Great-Ithaka are that the kingdom is extensive enough to explain Odysseus's wealth since he possesses more than "twenty other heroes together". His wealth may have been acquired through metal trade and mining exploitation in the Sierras of the interior. The kingdom must, therefore, have a 'dark, black' outlying area in the interior (épeiros), with which the black contours of the Sierras in the north and east can be intended. For that reason, he presumably had sufficient tin for bronze production so that he initially was able to refuse to join the expedition until Menelaos and Agamemnon pressured him. Wilkens says on p.142: 'To the ancient Greeks, the region of Cadiz was known as Tartessos, renowned for its wealth, not only because of its trade but also because south-west Spain is rich in minerals such as copper and lead. This would explain why Odysseus was reluctant to take part in the Trojan War (24,119) as the king of Ithaka must have thought to always come across enough tin for domestic use as he was established in the middle of the international sea-lanes like a spider in his web.'
Another argument why épeiros must be translated here with "inland" or "outland" is that some herds of Odysseus are being herded by xeinoi (non-Ithakesians, strangers, v.102).
In my opinion, the arguments for a Great-Ithaka are so strong that we must understand épeiros as inland: the Sierras with their mines. The general conclusion is that in a single case "Ithaka" means the limited Ithaka, namely Léon with the city of Cadiz, but usually Greater Ithaka, which encompasses the mainland and islands and also has a large outlying area in the interior.

Relative location
Above we derived the location of Ithaka from certain words and implicit expressions. It is also possible to distil the location of Ithaka as a whole from the relative location with regard to other identified regions.

1. Relative to Scheria, the island of the Faiakans
In 9.18 Odysseus says that his homeland Ithaka is far from Scheria. This excludes Corfu as residence of the Faiakans and Theaki as Ithaka, because the distance between Theaki and Corfu is only half a day sailing (110 km). Scheria is also far from the whole inhabited world (6,279 and 204) and not a few nautical miles from the mainland, like Corfu, from where Ithaka and Leukas are almost visible! Since we have identified Scheria as Lanzarote, this remark from Odysseus must relate to the distance Lanzarote - Ithaka (Cadiz, Jerez), about1000 km, a distance covered by the fast racing taxi of the Faiakans in one night. The course that the Faiakan ship had to sail from Lanzarote to Cadiz is north-north-east, which in the scheme of Wilkens is the constellation of Sagittarius (=Archer). In this constellation is the star Antinous, which is named after the suitor Antinoös. Both course directions can be found in the Odyssey, since Odysseus himself is the archer who kills the suitors, among whom Antinoös (Wilkens p.288).

2. Relative to Suria: the Balearic Islands.
In the Introduction Phoenicia, the distance Suria-Ithaka ((Menorca-Cadiz) is discussed: approx. 1100 km, a distance that can easily be done in the six days mentioned by Homeros with an average of 6 knots, see introduction Fenicians.

3. Relative to Aiolia
The island of Aiolia has been identified with the Azores Island of Corvo, see Atlantic Aiolia. The location of Ithaka is indicated quite accurately in the following fragment. Odysseus is sent home by Aiolos with a Zefyr wind:

Nine days we sailed on, day and night just as quickly.
Then, on the tenth day, the fatherland popped in front of our
eyes and we saw people lighting beacons nearby! (10,25 sq.)

Ithaka is located 9 days sailing east of Aiolia, which indicates a distance of approx. 1700-2200 km with an average of 10 km per hour, which corresponds to the distance Corvo-Cadiz: 2180 km.

4. Relative to Troy
In the following excerpt, Athena mentions the location of Ithaka in relation to the east, west and north:

No, many people know it for sure; It does not matter
if they live in the east in a country where the dawn rises,
or somewhere far behind in the dark, hazy west. (........)
That's why, my friend, the name of Ithaka is well known
    even there in Troy, that seems to be far from Achaia. (13, 238 sq.)

All major Atlantic authors situated Troy in the north, on the Gog Magog hills near Cambridge, England. Seen from the place where Odysseus landed, the phrase 'somewhere far behind in the dark, misty West' means in Madeira, the Azores, Caribbean or America. The east is the Mediterranean basin or even further, the Far East where the sun rises. If Troy is 'far from the Achaean country' (r.249) in the north, Ithaka must lie south of England, which corresponds with the identification of Ithaka as Cadiz / Jerez. It is clear that, from the Greek Theaki, this geographical indication of Troy has no significance whatsoever.
5. Relative to Thrinakia
Thrinakia is identified with Cornwall. If Odysseus and his companions want to leave, they are stopped for a whole month by two winds, the Euros and the Notos (12,325), a wind from south-east to south-west. To return to their homeland the course must be south, south-south-west or south-south-east, exactly the direction in which Ithaka (Cadiz, Jerez) is situated.7

6. With respect to Schouwen and the Helion
In book 11 Odysseus visits Kirke and the house of Hades. De Grave already situated Kirke's residence on Schouwen in Zeeland and the Hades on Walcheren, see Introduction Hades. In 11,14 Odysseus meets his deceased mother Antikleia. Her first surprised words give an indication of the relative geography. She herself stays in 'the misty west' in a place that can only be reached by boat  across the dangerous currents of Okeanos. The misty west is obviously Zeeland. Seen from Ithaka, according to Antikleia, Odysseus would have had to 'make a long voyage' to come to Zeeland, but then she remembers that he had already left for Troy, which is on the other side of the Channel, and realizes that he might never have been home yet (De Grave II, 43). The long sea voyage from northern Zeeland or Troy to Ithaka can only be directed southwards, making the location of Ithaka in Southern Spain a logical conclusion. This relative placement with respect to Zeeland is confirmed in fragment 24,9 ff, where Hermes is leading the throng of dead suitors like a flock of bats towards Hades:

   Just as sharply squeaking, they went with Hermes the
   Blessing Bringer, who walked ahead of them on musty paths.
   So they walked along Okeanos' streams, along the Rock of Whiteness,
   the Gates of Helios, and the land of Dreams.
   They soon reached the meadow of the asphodele,
   the place where the ghosts abide, the phantoms of men whose work is done.

Here, the route is described that Hermes takes with the souls of the murdered suitors to arrive in Zeeland, where the souls have to be judged by Minos and Radamanthos on the asphodele-meadow.
Hermes passes "Okeanos" currents, a locational term that has also been used with Odysseus' visit to the Hades in 11,154 and 11,639, indicating the area of the Kimmerians, Kirke and Nehalennia, i.e. Schouwen and Walcheren. This is confirmed by the designation "Gates of Helios", which we can also read as "Gates of the Helion", i.e. the mouth of the Meuse and the Scheldt. With the "Gates of Helios", the extreme west is meant which, seen from the European mainland, indicates Zeeland, where the Kimmerians live, see Atlantic Hades. What is meant by the "Rocks of Whiteness" is not entirely clear. Some argue that the rocks of Dover are intended (Stanford II, 412). If so, Hermes' route would be as follows: from Ithaka (Cadiz), it will pass by the currents of the Ocean, the Ocean coast, through the Channel where the chalk cliffs of Dover can be seen, to the gates of the Helion ( Schouwen, Walcheren) and to the land of the Dreams, which undoubtedly means the Acheron on Walcheren where the deceased dream of a beautiful resurrection.

7. Relative to Cyprus (Kupros)
From the story of Odysseus in his third lied story (17,442), it appears that, after his unsuccessful raid in Egypt ( Seine-mouth), he came aboard the ship of Dmetos that sailed to Kupros from where he finally arrived in Ithaka after much misery. Kuprus should therefore not be too far away from Ithaka, as it should sound logical to everyone that from there, albeit with problems, he could arrive in Ithaka by land. In Greece, the distance Cyprus-Theaki is far too far, let alone the distance Cyprus-Cadiz (Jerez).
Kupros, to which Afrodite flees after her humiliating clash with Hefaistos (8,361), is identified by Wilkens as St.Ciprián (San Cibrao) in North Galicia and Pafos with Foz, two closely situated cities, each on a tidal river and a sea inlet.  Unfortunately, there is no more information to be found in Homeros. The journey from San Cibrao to Jerez is long (775 km), but can be done overland within 14 days. Perhaps Kupros, which is derived from the Gallo-Germanic 'Kupfer, copper', is the same as Chalkis, the copper mine area of the Rio Tinto, as discussed in notes 15,295. Chalkos also means 'copper' (and bronze). In that case, Mr Dmetos as boss of these copper mines would have taken Odysseus to the Baetis or the area around Seville. Hence it is, of course, easy to get to Ithaka (Jerez).

8. Relative to Argos or Aulis
In 24,118 ff, Agamemnon tells that he and his brother Menelaos came to pick up Odysseus for the battle against Troy. He says that when he had persuaded him, the journey back home - that is, to Argos or to the gathering place of the Argivian fleet in Aulis - was one full month of sailing. In the Greek setting, the commentators have to take all kinds of side roads to explain this month's voyage from Ithaka (Theaki) to Aulis, a distance of about 500 km (or via Corinth 400 km), which normally would take two or three days. Moreover, they crossed over the "whole wide sea", that is, the ocean, and did not sail along the coast of the Peloponnese or in the inland waters of the Corinthian Gulf! Since Agamemnon's Argos has been identified as the Seine area in France and Aulis was situated in Denmark, the distance Ithaka-Argos (Jerez-Seine basin) would have been 2,300 km and to Aulis (Denmark) even 3200. Even sailing around England is a possibility: 4000 km. The average distance per day is then: 80, 100 and 130 km, a small average but explainable if there was a strong headwind from the north. Hence the explicit mention that they had sailed for one month.

9. Relative to Kreta
Kreta has been identified as the three parts of Scandinavia: Norway, Sweden and Denmark (see Introduction Kreta). In his fourth lied story (19.164 ff), Odysseus in front of Penelope pretends to be the brother of Idomeneus, called Aithon, and to have met Odysseus in that quality when he got off course near Malea and ended up in Kreta. Malea is identified as the cape at St.Malo, Brittany, from where a hard south-westerly storm drives Odysseus' ship north-east, makes him miss the left turn to Troy (the Wash) and takes him further to Scandinavia. That is a correct statement indeed since the course for Odysseus to Troy from southern Spain (Cadiz, Jerez) is northward.

Features of Ithaka
While Ithaka is usually referred to as "rocky" (kranaés 15,510) and "sandy" (paipaloeis, which can be derived from paipal -dust, flour, sand) it is described as a "fertile land" in 19,399. The latter must relate to the fertile arable land around Jerez (sherry grapes!). "Rocky" Ithaka must indicate ancient Jerez and the Mesas de Asta, "sandy" Ithaka the island of Leon with Cadiz and its many beaches and dunes.

  It is a bit rough and therefore unfit for herding horses,
  but it is certainly not destitute, although it is not very wide either.
  It carries crops in plenty and good vineyards too
  and it never lacks copious dew and rain.
  It is a fine land for grazing goats and cattle as well; there are
  trees of all kinds and drinking places for the cattle that never dry up. (13,242 ff.)

According to Telemachos, Ithaka does not have wide roads (4,605) and no extended grassland for horses (13,243). It is not entirely clear whether Telemacho here points to Same as part of Great-Ithaka or to Ithaka as a whole. Ithaka is a rough country but produces a lot of goats, pigs and cows according to the list given by Eumaios of Odysseus' enormous herds (see above). For horses, however, one must be with the horseman Nestor in Palos, with Menelaos in Lagos or in the marismas of Huelva.
Furthermore, in 13,238 it is mentioned that there is always rain and dew present. There is more than 1000 mm of annual rainfall around Cadiz and Huelva, much more than the Spanish average. In 13,189 it appears that Odysseus is shrouded in fog when he arrives in Ithaka (Cadiz). Marine fog can occur along the Atlantic coast, depending on the temperature of air and water. In v.196 he sees 'steep rocks' that he does not recognize either. The steeply sloping rocks north of Playa Caleta can be meant or the area up to Playa S.Maria del Mar.
Regarding the climate of Ithaka, 14,457 reports that around the house of Eumaios there is a strong southwester with rain, which indicates an Atlantic depression. In v.523, a severe winter is mentioned for which Eumaios had an extra warm blanket ready. Since it is likely December 1166 or the fall of 1167 BC, the chill is already quite bad and Odysseus seems to need a warm blanket. In fragment 17,23 above, we read that it can freeze lightly in the morning (v.25).  Obviously. there is a cold front passing the country, as appears from v.89 too, where Telemachos and Theoklumenos get woollen coats and chitons. In v.191, Eumaios points out to Odysseus that it can become too cold for him in the evenings too.  At Jerez temperatures of -5 ° are measured, while in the mountain regions it is, of course, even colder.

Political situation
As is evident from 1,386 ff, the kingship in Ithaka is not hereditary, although it is true that the same dynasty can remain in power for several generations (patroion - "tradition in the family"). From Telemachos' words "Anyway, there are countless other Achaean princes here in Ithaka between two seas, young and old. One of them will get that function if hero Odysseus has died' it appears that after the death of a king several Achaian nobles can claim the title. "It is in the womb of the gods who will become king" (v.400): that is to say that fate or a vote decides about it. As long as Odysseus is not officially declared dead, he remains king. The question is, however, who fulfilled his functions during his absence. Penelope could partially take over the role of her husband, but she was absolutely unable to do so because of her depressive mental state, while Telemachos was still too young. It is remarkable that according to 2,26 ff, the meeting of Ithakesians, then organized by Telemachos, is the first in 20 years. The first speaker is pleased that at last there is a meeting and hopes for news from the lost fleet, of which no man has yet returned. But if no meetings are held, who managed Ithaka all those years? Was Ithaka divided into territories where the feudal nobility was in charge? Did it, after Odysseus' departure, manage its own territory, without considering the general interest of Ithaka as a whole?
The meeting proceeds in an orderly manner. A herald arranges the order of speaking, gives the speaker a sceptre and then everybody speaks neatly one after the other. From v.50 it appears, however, that it is a loose lot in Ithaka. The suitors have entered the house against the Queen's express wish as if they could claim feudal rights to her. The elderly of Ithaka do nothing against it, in fact: they even try to kill Odysseus themselves in book 24, too, instead of being ashamed of the misbehaviour of their sons. The tone of Telemachos is sarcastic: 'sons of these gentlemen, who are called "nobles" here' (v.51). He does make a difference between the suitors who mainly come from other islands and the Achaeans of Ithaka itself (v.75: 'you, Ithakesians'). The latter, he says, he can tackle legally, the first apparently not, because they do not fall under Ithaka, such as the island of Doulichion (see above and Stanford I.p.238). Obviously, the essential problem is not legal in nature but concerns the misuse of guest law. The Ithakesians among the suitors are Achaians too, see 2,7, but form a minority (16,248). Of the 108 suitors, only twelve come from mainland Ithaka (Jerez, Medina). However, if we involve Same and Zakunthos in Greater Ithaka (Cadiz and Jacinto), then their number is 56.
Achaians should not be understood as people from a particular country but as a group with the same religious background, as brotherhoods, see Introduction Achaeans. Many areas in Western Europe are summarized under the term "Achaean country", such as Ithaka, holy Pulos (Palos), Argos of Portugal and central Spain, and Mukene, capital of Agamemnon's empire around the Seine.
Do the suitors constitute the actual rulers? In 2,192, Alitherses, who took it up for Telemachos, was threatened with a fine by Eurumachos. With what right can the suitors impose that fine? As appears from the course of this meeting, the suitors and their relatives indeed are in charge in Ithaka. Therefore, the court is also dominated by them or their family.
In 22,52 it becomes clear what the goal of the suitors is: to become king over all Ithakesians. Great-Ithaka is divided into démoi (v.34), as was the case with the island of the Faiakans, Scheria (see Introduction Scheria). At the head of each district was a vassal king or governor (basileus). The suitors were the sons of such vassals, who could claim a vacant throne.

The name "Ithaka"
Jerez lies on the Guadelete, the Agua del Ita (= Ita-aqua> Itaka), the Ita-river. This etymology would suffice in itself, but Wilkens has come up with a different solution. He thinks "Ithaka" is a Semitic name derived from - i -, "island" and tokh, tawek - "middle" and thus means "Island in the Middle", which exactly corresponds to the aforementioned qualification of Ithaka as located "between two seas". Against this, we could argue that Ithaka as a whole is not an island but covers a large area on the mainland, through which the river Ita flows. I prefer the first etymology.

     Celtiberian coin "Kostu" and Coin of Ithaka

On one side of a number of old coins Itha or Ithakon can be read, while on the image side a bearded head is depicted with a cap (a Frugian or Frisian cap, see image), which probably represents Odysseus, who apparently also was honoured on the Greek Theaki. It is remarkable, however, that a rooster is depicted on several coins, a strange symbol that has nothing to do with Theaki but relates to the land of Cadiz and Jerez, where, according to Ptolemaios, Celtici lived, who, like the Gauls, had a gallus, a rooster, for symbol (PA 292). The question then arises how these coins ended up on Theaki. The solution lies again in the Celtiberian emigrations that took place between 1200 and 800, during which various settlements have been established on the Ionian islands and on the Peloponnesian coast, so that the Ithaka coins were used as a means of payment by daughter cities too. Theaki is named after Ithaka and the capital Vathy (Bathi) after the Baetis where Ithaka borders. Furthermore, we find the island Kosto near Theaki, which recalls the Celtiberian name Kostu (see coin), and the island Kefalonia, which is another name for Great-Ithaka. The Greek island of Zante (Zakunthos) is named after the Homeric Zakunthos (Jacinto), Kullenia on the other side of the Peloponnese to the Llanos de Caulina just above Jerez, Pulos to Palos, Lakonia to Lagos etc. The name of Ithaka-city Asta later changed to Ceres Achaea that eventually became Jerez. Ceres Achaia was the mother goddess (=Demeter, Astarte, Isis, Nehalennia) who is still revered as the Holy Virgin Mary. The etymology of Achaia is Phoenician: from ach -brother. The name Ceres Achaia relates to the mothergod cult of the Achaean brotherhoods that in these regions is still being practised by Christian fraternities during the festivals of, for example, Nuestra Señora de la Merced and the Virgen del Rocio, see Introduction Pulos.
The name Ithaka possibly lived on in Ituca in Lusitania and in Ituca (= Utica), an important city on the Carthaginian coast. Moreover, the name Ithaka has never completely disappeared from Spain but in Christian times it has been a name of Spanisch saints and scholars: Ithacius (also Idacius and Hydatius). Ithacius was a famous Bishop of Merida and three others with that name occupied episcopal positions in important Spanish cities. In the royal Pantheon there is a fifth century sarcophagus with the name Ithacius on it.

The conclusion is that the identification of Ithaka as Cadiz and Jerez is coherent and logical
- because of the relative location with respect to all identified places along or on the Atlantic,
- on the basis of climate and other characteristics and
- because of the political situation and naming.

Abbreviations used for the books of Th. Cailleux (1878):
OC  Origine celtique de la civilisation de tous les peuples
PH  Poésies d' Homère
PA   Pays Atlantiques, decrit par Homère
Citations of Homer: Roman cyphers = Ilias, e.g. XX,345; Arabic cyphers = Odyssey, e.g. 13,34.

Bibliography Atlantic authors:
Homeros Odyssee, by Gerard Janssen, Leeuwarden 2018 = H.O.
Gideon E. Troje lag in Engeland, Deventer 1991, reprint of Homerus, zanger der Kelten, 1973
Grave Ch.J. De  République des Champs Élysées, Gent 1806, 3 parts.
Vinci F. The Baltic Origins of Homer's Epic Tales, 2005
Wilkens I.J. Where Troy once stood, 1990,
                   Dutch: Waar eens Troje lag, 2015 Leeuwarden.

1. However, Cailleux believes that many stories about the famous Tartessos probably refer to Tortosa at the estuary of the Ebro, which Pomponius Mela (II, 8, 32) calls Dertosa (PH 416).
2. 100 stadia according to Strabo.
3. Murray's Handbook, Londen 1845.
4. Silius Italicus Punica 3,402.
5. Greek gives proté akté - 'first / foremost cape or point'.
6. See Wilkens p. 132 -134 with map and notes 14.190, 17.204, 20.185 H.O.
7. In the Greek setting, where Thrinakia would be Sicily and Ithaka Theaki, these winds are, of course, favorable and the men did not have to wait to leave!

Series: Odysseus' First Voyage
- part 1: Troy- Gog Magog Hills, England
- part 2: Ismaros and the Kikonen - Brittany
- part 3: Lotophages - Senegal
- part 4: Cyclopes - Fogo, Madeira, Cameroon
- part 5: Aiolia andAiolos - Corvo (Azores)
- part 6: Laestrygones - Cuba, La Havana
- part 7: Aiaia and Kirke - Schouwen, Zeeland
- part 8: Hades-Walcheren, Zeeland

Series: Odysseus' Second Voyage
- part I:   Tenedos-Thanet and the Seirenes;
- part II:  Skulla, Charubdis -St. Michael's Mount
- part III: Thrinakia-Cornwall
- part IV: Ogygia- Azores, Kalupso;
- part V:   Scheria-Lanzarote;
- part VI: Ithaka-Cádiz, Jérez