THANET-TENEDOS | THRINAKIA-CORNWALL | OGUGIA-AZORES | SCHERIA-LANZAROTE | ITHAKA-CADIZ, JEREZ
SKULLA AND CHARUBDIS
(ST. MICHAEL'S MOUNT) PDF-download
Odysseus' Second Voyage Part II and III
Translation of Introduction Cornwall-Thrinakia from Homeros Odyssee, De zwerftochten van Odysseus over de Atlantische Oceaan by Gerard.W.J.Janssen, Leeuwarden 2018, p.686 sq.
Continuation of Atlantic Troy, in academia.edu. Website Homer Odyssey .
PART II: SKULLA AND CHARUBDIS,
After his adventures with the Seirenes, Odysseus sails on and "immediately" comes to Skulla and Charubdis, where he has to pass the second test of obedience to Kirke' assignments.
With regard to Skulla we can extract the following data from the text 12,73 sq.:
- she lives in a smooth, sharply tapered stone formation with a misty cavern in the midst, facing west towards Erebos;
- the cavern lays high up;
- the monster Skulla, that is hidden up in it to her waist, barks and squeaks like a puppy;
- it has twelve legs, six very long necks, six horrible heads with three rows of teeth;
- it fishes up big sea animals;
- it is an immortal, uncontrollable evil;
- her mother is Krataïs (v.118)
- the distance between Skulla and the Seirenes is not very large (v.201)
- she lives near a sea strait (steinopon, v.234).
Storm at Mount's Bay, after J.M.W.Turner, 1775-1851,
from Picturesque Views on the Southern Coast of England
Except for De Grave all Atlantic authors locate Skulla at England's south-coast, more specific on St. Michael's Mount, Cornwall. Cailleux first suggested the brilliant idea of Skulla being six cranes, of which the legs are invisible and the heads and necks with their triple toothed grippers could be released outside to load or unload ships. Her mother Karataïs is the kradé, later used in Greek theatre productions to hoist the gods up to the roof or to let them fly across the stage. Krataïs would than be the drive mechanism for the cranes, a sort of winch driven by springs. The barking and squeaking are the noises of the springs and drive wheels.1
The materials that were loaded here were of course metals like the tin of Cornwall with overseas destinations. Indeed, old chronicles mention that tin was loaded at a place that fell dry at low tide, which is the case with the Mount. Wilkens adds (p.259): "This is confirmed by the Greek explorer Pytheas of Marseilles who visited the tin-mines of Cornwall around 330 BC and wrote that the tin was transported at low tide to the adjacent island for shipping overseas. He also reported that the metal was smelted and cast into knuckle-bone shape for export." Now it's generally recognized that this shipping island is the Mount.2 The Greek word for tin is kassiteros derived from the Kassiterides, another name for the British Isles and especially Cornwall, whose tin can be found all over the world. Even a bronze statue of Pharaoh Pepi (2300 BC) contains tin from Cornwall (Wilkens p.255). Phocaeans, Phoenicians, Venetians, Iberians, Skythes and other merchants exchanged their merchandise for metals of the Silures, the inhabitants of Cornwall.
Gideon (p.93-96) points to the fact that Cailleux positioned Skulla and Charubdis incorrectly. The coast must be Charubdis and Skulla the rocky island and not vice versa, because the crane cavern faces the west, which means that from Thanet one has to sail around the island and enter the bay from the west with Skulla on starboard and Charubdis at larboard. With this, Homer gives a nautical indication about the method of loading and unloading ships there and a warning for sailors. Since tide difference is about 5 m., one must avoid the coast with its dangerous floods and waves at all means and stay close to the St. Michael's Mount, moor or anchor at high tide in order to load or unload and then quickly leave again on the eastern side of the bay with the prevailing southwestern wind from behind. Water depth at lowest spring tide is +3,5 m (dry), at highest spring tide -1,5 à 2 m. The coast (Charubdis) has even lower tide. It is important, therefore, to handle ships fast with multiple cranes at the same time, because there is navigable water only for 2 or 3 hours, or else the ship will fall dry and must wait for hours.
Wilkens suggests (p.294) the name Skulla has been preserved in the Isles of Scilly near Land's End and Charubdis possibly in Carbis Bay on the northern side of Cornwall.
The identification of Skulla as St.Michael's Mount may be confirmed by the name Erebos. Homer tells (v.12,80) that Skulla "is facing west towards Erebos". Which Erebos is meant here? The word Erebos has a Gallo-German derivation from Erbe, erf - ground, especially cemetery (book 11, see Introduction Hades). Because this Erebos can't be the same cemetery as the Erebos of Zeeland, it has to be found somewhere else. Its location must be west or southwest from the Mount, and indeed, in the west are the Isles of Scilly where a lot of Bronze Age tombs have been found. One of these islands is Bryher, named after the giant Briareus, who for ever is watching over the eternally dormant Saturn, buried there in the deepest Tartaros by Zeus himself.3
What does the rock actually look like?
Skulla is called petra and skopelos. De Grave (II,134) states that petra means not only "rock" but also "stone" in the sense of a "Steen", a castle constructed with smooth polished stones, like the cyclopic walls in parts of Europe, and a high, sharply tapered tower. Skopelos is a derivation from skopein ( to look out or to spy). So in his view, it was a smooth and tall watchtower, probably used for astronomic purposes too. The continuous blueish mist laying around it is a Homeric expression for the fact that one could spy without being seen. The climatic details of vs. 74/75 (never clear air, always mist) are similar to those of Zeeland, the land of the Kimmerians, and are exaggerated, just like those, possibly as a funny sneer for connoisseurs on the ever-present weather depressions of these regions. In the middle is a speos, not a cave but a lookout for spies, from which ships could be noticed at large distances, possibly with telescopes. The polished stones indicate a human construction, not a natural rock. So far, I can follow De Grave, but when he states Skulla to be six harbour piers, each composed of three rows of poles with brushwood and beams between them, while each pier has a jetty for the toll boats to be moored, that with force and coercion (Krataia, from Gr. kratos -force!) levy toll on passing ships, then I will argue against it that harbour piers don't bark and squeak like puppies, don't look like monsters, don't have twelve legs etc.
The most credible statements from the commentators provide the following picture: Skulla is a fortress with a high donjon, made of polished stones, from which you can look out over the sea. Halfway there is a cavern with six cranes, that can load and unload one or more ships at the same time within 3-4 hours. The cargo consists of ingots, called "oxhides" or "shanks", of tin, copper, lead, iron. These metals are transported from the coast to the island at low tide. Because St. Michael is a Christian replacement of Belen (=Apollo), in Druidic times the top of the fort presumably had a statue of Belen with an (undulating) sword in his hand, with which he had killed the snake Puthon, symbolizing the victory over the sea (PA 198). St. Michael is still represented in that way at various places in Europe.
St. Michael, Sainte-Gudule
St.Michael with undulating sword (Austria)
Details about Charubdis are mentioned below (chapter Thrinakia).
In 12,198 sq. Odysseus tells they noticed Skulla and Charubdis immediately after the Seirenes adventure. Seen both from Thanet (Cailleux) as from the Solent (Gideon, Wilkens), Cornwall is not next door (rep. 300 and 500 km away). Odysseus uses the same term in v.261 when he sails from Skulla to Thrinakia (Cornwall): they arrive very soon. The last description is correct, as we'll see, but the first is not. Wilkens gives a possible solution4: "The person to be initiated in the Mysteries had to pass through a state that resembled death. This could be achieved through ritual contact with one of the four elements. Depending on the place or culture: ordeal by fire, immersion in water, air or earth..... The Sirens' song corresponds to the strange sounds reported by some survivors of the near-death experience described by Moody... According to Moody's patients, the Sirens' song is followed by the impression of passing through a dark tunnel or spiral, which corresponds well with Homer's description of the whirlpool between Scylla and Charybdis. The victim then arrives at the final stage of clinical death, symbolized by Thrinacia, land of the sun god, Helios. The adventure on the island corresponds to the last phase that those who have returned from clinical death describe as entry into a brilliant light."
In Wilkens' view the stories about the Seirenes, Skulla, Charubdis and Helios' cattle are allegories for the ordeals the newly initiated person has to pass to prove his talents. Is this state of mind, time and distances are of no importance. Therefore, Kirke told him explicitly that he wouldn't receive clear instructions concerning distance, course, and wind (12,56): Once your comrades have rowed you beyond those creatures I cannot advise you in detail of the best course to take. I will tell you the choice, but you must decide.
So, again it appears that the Odyssey has three layers:
- the mythical story itself with cruel monsters, seductresses and beautiful nymphs;
- the nautical layer that advises sailors about courses, harbours, tides etc. and warns them about the many dangers, in this case at St. Micael's Mount and Thrinakia.
- the third spiritual layer of the initiation process with its continuous series of ordeals, where time and distance are insignificant.
PART III: THRINAKIA
Cailleux gives a large number of arguments why we should see Thrinakia as Britain.5
-The name can be traced back to tri (three) and eck (angle) and thus means Triangle-land. A small triangle is formed by Cornwall itself, which was a peninsula but in fact almost an island, while a large triangle is Britain.
- There are iron, copper and tin mines in Wales and Cornwall, as recently confirmed by the excavation of a copper mine from the Bronze Age in Anglesey (Parys Mountain) where copper "ox skins" were found.
- Iron and bronze were exchanged for, among other things, wine from Lemnos, which does not refer to the Greek island but to Montforte d'Lemnos on the upper Douro in Portugal, see Introduction Lemnos.
- Of the Trojans practically every noble warrior had a chariot, used as battle taxis, of the Achaeans many had one. The Belgians (Atrebats) had technically developed vehicles in all sorts of forms and on the Saxon coast in southern England Belgians lived in e.g. Venta Belgarum, nowadays Winchester.
- The tumuli mentioned by Homer (7x) mainly occur around Troy, which we now know is located in England. Many tumuli can be found in England. From Stonehenge, you can (at least still in 1870) distinguish 128 tumuli, which also have the special feature that there is a stone "cairn" around the burial urn, as described by Homer.
-The large Triangle is formed by the upper corner of Scotland and the lower corners of Thanet and Cornwall, the latter two of which are important for our story. Thanet has been discussed with the Seirenes. Cornwall will be discussed now. Helios is mentioned on both southern points of the great triangle: in v.176 as Helios Huperionides who warms the wax blocks, and in v.133 as Helios Huperion. For Huperion "Uppersun" see below. Helios (= Apollo, Belen) is the main deity in Thrinakia and that was also the case in Cornwall with its many megalithic monuments and circles, some of which can be explained as Apollo temples and others as large sundials or solar calendars.
Stone circle of Boscawen-Un, Cornwall with the 19 stones
of the great sun year (Meton-cycle) and a sundial
The passage of Hekataios on the Hyperboreans confirms the identification of Thrinakia with Britain. 'Among the historians who have described the ancient mythologies, Hekataios and some others claim that there is an island in the ocean across the Celtic land that is not smaller in size than Sicily. This island, situated at the level of the Bears, they say, is inhabited by the Hyperboreans, so called because they live beyond the point where Boreas comes from. The soil of this island is excellent and fertile, and there is also such a good temperature that it yields two harvests per year. They also tell that Leto was born there, which explains why the islanders especially worship Apollo most of all gods. In a way, they are all priests of Apollo, because they continually sing hymns every day for him and worship him in a special way ........... The government of this state and the supervision of the temple is entrusted to kings called Boreads, descendants of Boreas, who take over governance from generation to generation.6'
Hekataios cannot have had any other island in mind than Thrinakia, where the huge stone age monuments are present in large numbers. Compare the Introduction Troy with the Chruses-passage, where the 'ceaseless paians' in the Apollo sanctuary have been discussed.
The connection of Apollo with Cornwall also appears from his nickname Karneios, since the Breton name for Cornwall is Kerné. Another name for Cornwall is Erin, an Irish name, while Huperion also has an Irish derivation: ion is "sun" in Irish, so Huperion can indeed be translated as "Uppersun". At both ends were virgins, the Tenitae (mermaids) on Thanet and the Erinuen in Erin (Cornwall), the "Erin girls" who later became Furies in Latin, to which the Furry-dance in Hell's Town (now Helston) was named, a spring-flower festival that is still being celebrated in this city at the beginning of May.7 In the story about Helios' cattle, two nymphs play a role, Lampetia and Faëthousa, daughters of Helios (Helion) and Neaira (from nearos = fresh, virgin). Neaira gave birth to them far away in the east and urged them to move to this western remote corner.
Another indication of the presence of Apollo in Cornwall is the myth that Apollo fell in love with Coron-is, who at her death left him a son Asklepios, who was raised by the nurse Trigone. Near Mount's Bay is the town of Tregony in Druidic country. As a punishment for the death of Coronis, Apollo had to work under the pseudonym Amfrysos for Admetos, the king of Magnesia. Mag-nesia can be traced back to "Magi-island", Island of the Druids, which refers to the large or small Thrinakia. There, the legend is told that Ambrosius, with its twelve mates, has erected the megalithic monuments (including Stonehenge). In this way, the old and new legends are interconnected and Stonehenge is indirectly linked to Apollo.
-Cornwall ends in two capes, Lizard and Land's End. In the bay between the two capes lies the Belenus-mountain (Belerium = Apollo-mountain), nowadays St.Michael's Mount, where we have situated Skulla.8
-In the following lines the "Cows" of Helios are discussed:
||Journeying on you will reach the island of Thrinakia, where the
||Sun-gods cattle and rich flocks graze:
||seven herds of kine and as many fine herds of sheep,
||with fifty head per herd. They bear no young,
||but never die, and goddesses with lovely tresses,
||the nymphs Faethousa and Lampetia, the daughters of Neaira
||and Helios Huperion, are their shepherdesses.
||When their mighty mother had borne and nursed them,
||she sent them to remote Thrinakia to live and
||tend their fathers flocks and spiral-horned cattle. (12,127 sq)
The herds of cows and large sheep consist of 7 x 50 = 350 pieces per species. For the cattle and sheep see the Laistrugons, where we suggested they were ingots, "ox-skins", of silver and copper/tin. In this story of Thrinakia also "ingots" seem to be meant, because the cows do not produce offspring. The cows have straight horns (v.348) in a helical shape and a broad forehead. They do not die and are so precious that they are guarded at night by the two nymphs Faëthousa and Lampetia. With Lampetia one has to light a lampas-torch, because her light is too faint, so that she may also be New Moon, and in Faëthousa the word faos-light can be seen: Full Moon. Lampetia's long peplos points to the long train-robes that, according to Strabo, the Erinues of the Cassiterides-Islands wore. When the mates, headed by Eurumachos, decide to slaughter the cattle, they promise to build a huge and rich temple for Helios "Uppersun" later at home (v.346). The construction of such a temple, possibly like Stonehenge, is obviously a very costly affair, which is not reserved for a few private sailors. This is another indication that the cattle they steal, and certainly the 'best' cattle (aristas), are precious metals in the form of ingots.
Drawing of two cowheads forming an ingot or "oxhide"
-Thrinakia is 'far away' (v.135), in a remote corner, but from where is Cornwall distant? From the east, where the moon and the sun rise. The two moon nymphs are therefore born in the east but live in the west, where they see everything and can report to Helios "Undersun", which Miss Crescent will do in v.374, undoubtedly at New Moon because then she is close to the sun.
But where is the region where the so-called "Helios cows" are located? In 12,305 Homer says that after the ship had escaped the claws of Skulla and Charubdis via the eastern exit, the ship was anchored or pulled onto the beach in a circular, freshwater-filled bay. The nearest port and safe landing point is Porthleven with Lake Loe (The Loe), which is cut off from the sea by dunes (Loe Bar) and contains fresh water. This location is more likely because the city of Helston is on the north side of this lake. When a south-southwestern storm (Notos, v.325) bursts out, directed right on the beach, they move the ship further inland over the sand to a cavity or a cave, possibly over the Loe Bar into the freshwater basin,'where the Nymphs had their seats and dancing places', i.e. the Erinues or Furies of Hell's Town. Sources mention that from here tin was shipped too.9
Cailleux suggests that Odysseus then walks alone to pray in a temple, a pantheon in the middle of the forest, where no wind comes through (PA 200). The indications for this only consist of the phrase 'to all Olumpian gods' (v.336), but the circumstances surely are such that Odysseus can fall into a deep sleep, which presupposes a quiet place in a building or in a dense forest.
Plutarch confirms the correctness of the identification of Cornwall with Thrinakia in his The decay of the oracles c.18, in which Demetrios, who had just arrived from Britain, says: 'Then Demetrios said that in England ther are lot of deserted islands, some of which had names of gods or heroes. He himself was once commissioned by the Emperor for research and observation work to the nearest lonely island, an island with few inhabitants, but with 'holy men', who were inviolable in the eyes of the British.10 Just when he arrived there, there had been huge air turbulence with a lot of atmospheric phenomena; storm gusts had burst and lightning struck. When the weather cleared up, the islanders said that the death of one of the "better" had occurred. "As a burning lamp," they said, "is not a danger, while it is very troublesome11 to many as it goes out, so the great minds have friendly and non-aggressive forms, but their disappearance and deaths sometimes are accompanied by storms and rain flurries, just like now, or otherwise they mess up the air with epidemic disasters." There would be one island on which Kronos was imprisoned, guarded during his sleep by Briareus - for sleep was thought up as a gyve for him - while masses of demons lived as servants and companions around him.'
The tombs of the Isles of Scilly, especially of Bryher, are already mentioned above. In German, these islands are called Teufels Inseln (Demons Islands), in Lat./ Gr. Kassiterids, the Tin Islands. The description of Demetrios thus refers to Thrinakia and in particular to Cornwall and the associated islands.
After their departure from Thrinakia, Odysseus suffers shipwreck and all his mates are lost (12,403 sq.). What wind was blowing when they left the island of Thrinakia? In v.400 it says only that the force of the wind ceased, but there is no new wind direction, so we still assume a Notos or Euros, making the ship, while sailing sharply on the wind, ending up in the Celtic Sea beyond Cornwall, where 'there was no other country to be seen'. In r.408, however, a whooping westerly wind is mentioned, blowing the ship back to the Channel, possibly towards Cape Lizard, since this name can be traced back to Lys-ard, derived from Ulysses-earth (= land of Ulysses, PA 207). Before Odysseus reaches cape Lizard, the western storm stops and he drives north with the south wind (Notos v.426) back to Skulla and Charubdis. The winds are entirely in line with the geography of Cornwall. In the Greek setting, all winds are exactly wrong.12
Some more remarks:
- The name Amfitrite occurs several times in the Trinakia passage and according to Cailleux means the ocean that, at high tide, encloses the island of Skulla on the left and right (amfi-trite = "sea around") and thus indicates the existence of tides. The same Amfitrite is named in v.97 as a producer of large sea creatures such as seals, dolphins, sharks and whales and thus clearly symbolizes the ocean's water. The name amfi-trite is also related to the harbour moles, since tri points to the tridents of the piers and amfi means"shelter around", i.e."sea space enclosed by moles".
The description of Charubdis is special. The elements that can be found in the text are as follows:
- Charubdis is a lower skopelos than Skulla; they are close to each other;
- there is a tall fig tree hanging over the water;
- it is three times high and low tide, with Charubdis absorbing the water and spitting it out with a seething swell and smoke (vapour) and foam in the air as a result;
- the bottom is blue-black.
De Grave, who situates Skulla on the French coast at Sitium (= St.Omer), could not find Charubdis there and thinks that she may have disappeared in the waves, which is not very plausible (II, 143). Cailleux states that the tides on the Saxon coast of southern England are irregular. For example, at Poole, the flood could sometimes be seen four times a day, which therefore has been given a special name: the Gulder.13 It can be argued that the conditions at Poole and Swanage are different from those at St. Michael's Mount, but there too there are irregular tide movements (Gideon p.189). Whatever the case, whether there are two or three tides, it seems to me that the entire Charubdis episode is a warning to sailors to sail not too close to the coast, especially not with a freighter, because of the low water depth. Under unfavourable conditions, the blue-black (clay) bottom is visible already one hour after high tide.
After the shipwreck, Odysseus is once again driven to the Charubdis, to finally fall back into the hard life with the help of the fig tree (he falls from the fig onto his keel bar), see 12,429 ff. This fig tree, called erineon, had been consciously mentioned earlier by Homer in v.103. The Greek term erineon is derived from Erin, the tip of Cornwall and also the name for Ireland, areas covered with Druidic monuments, where Irish, Welshmen and Bretons kept their mysteries. Erin was a holy name for the surrounding peoples, even a war cry, as it is still used in Ireland: 'Erin go brach' (Ireland forever). Homer alludes with this erineon to Breton Erin, but in Greek, the word means "wild fig". Homer indicates with this fig-story that the region Erin is Odysseus' salvation.14 Wilkens devotes an entire page to the fig tree (p.260) and says 'that for the ancients the fig tree was a mystical tree, whose leaf was associated with the north-south axis, and a seafarer like Odysseus wanting to sail from Cornwall to Spain would have to head due south. This is a third type of directional indicator, after the obvious wind direction and the less obvious zodiacal signs.' According to him, the fig tree was also a symbol of the Gnostic religion, on which Odysseus as a gnostic held firmly. 'The fruit also had a special meaning for the Ancients who believed that the fig was the preferred food of hermits. There must be something in it because an ancient map of Walcheren (Hades) shows a hamlet with the name Vijch-eeter (Fig-eater) very close to Dishoek, where most probably was the residence of the hierophants in charge of the initiation ceremonies.'
Map of Walcheren, Zeeland, with Vijch-eeter NW of Flushing
Furthermore, Wilkens (p.270) says: 'Odysseus thus has to pass the terrible Scylla and Charubdis twice, both before and after his visit to Thrinacië. This confirms that Homer describes a near-death experience; for those who have survived the last stage of clinical death recount that they passed twice through the 'tunnel' or 'spiral' twice, first to arrive in the land of light and the second time to return to life.'
In summary, the word erineon has several meanings:
- it is a placeholder: Erin in Cornwall;
- it is a mystical tree of new life and a symbol of Gnosticism, as evidenced by the names Erinues and Vijgeter;
- it is a course guide: north-south.
We can now conclude that the passage concerning the ordeals has three different layers. Apart from the myth itself (first layer), there is
- a second layer, which describes the geographical details that were important for navigation and trade or that led to dangers: Thanet, St. Michael's Mount, Cornwall;
- a third spiritual layer, describing the trials to which the initiate must submit: that of obedience, self-control and poverty and the near-death experience, leading the initiate to the light through the seductive chants and the spiral tunnel and then ending up in "reality" through the same tunnel. In this last layer, the factors of time and distance are not present, so that Homer can say that places that are geographically far apart are directly next to each other and lie close together.
All details mentioned by Homer are applicable to Cornwall without exception and can only be found there, which makes this identification plausible.
Abbreviations used for the books of Th. Cailleux (1878):
OC Origine celtique de la civilisation de tous les peuples
PH Poésies d' Homère
PA Pays Atlantiques, decrit par Homère
Citations of Homer: Roman cyphers = Ilias, e.g. XX,345; Arabic cyphers = Odyssey, e.g. 13,34.
Bibliography Atlantic authors:
Homeros Odyssee, by Gerard Janssen, Leeuwarden 2018
Gideon E. Troje lag in Engeland, Deventer 1991, reprint of Homerus, zanger der Kelten, 1973
Grave Ch.J. De République des Champs Élysées, Gent 1806, 3 parts.
Vinci F. The Baltic Origins of Homer's Epic Tales, 2005
Wilkens I.J. Where Troy once stood, 1990,
Dutch: Waar eens Troje lag, 2015 Leeuwarden.
1. For the cranes of Antwerpen (Crane) see Introduction Herakles.
2. Source: H.H. Scullard, Roman Britain, Thames & Hudson, Londen 1987. Mount St.-Michael's function as a shipping centre of tin a.o. has been confirmed by the Mayor van Penzance (Gideon p.189).
3. The word Tartar(os) itself means "cemetery" because of the derivation from tar, with which bodies were mummified. So, Tar-tar is the ultimate bury-ground.
4. Wilkens p.234 and 269. Moody A. Life after Life, Covington 1975.
5. PH thèse 12, p.288 ev.
6. In Diod. Sic. Bibliotheca II,47. Another part of this citation on page p.602 and 607.
7. Google video: Furry dance.
8. Land's End is called Antivestaeum by ancient geographers, which means "Opposite the west".
9. Lyell Ancienneté de l'homme.
10. Holy man are Druids.
11. Annoying, because of the oil stench after quenching.
12. For example, the Notos of Euros would propel the ship from Sicily, where traditionally the flocks of Helios are located, to Sardinia, Corsica or Spain, in any case not to a sea where 'there is no other country to be seen'.
13. Source e.g.: Nautical Magazine 1851, Londen.
14. PH 210 and PA 196 and 207.
Series: Odysseus' First Voyage
- part 1: Troy- Gog Magog Hills, England
- part 2: Ismaros and the Kikonen - Brittany
- part 3: Lotophages - Senegal
- part 4: Cyclopes - Fogo, Madeira, Cameroon
- part 5: Aiolia andAiolos - Corvo (Azores)
- part 6: Laestrygones - Cuba, La Havana
- part 7: Aiaia and Kirke - Schouwen, Zeeland
- part 8: Hades-Walcheren, Zeeland
Series: Odysseus' Second Voyage
- part I: Tenedos-Thanet and the Seirenes;
- part II: Skulla, Charubdis -St. Michael's Mount
- part III: Thrinakia-Cornwall
- part IV: Ogygia- Azores, Kalupso;
- part V: Scheria-Lanzarote;
- part VI: Ithaka-Cádiz, Jérez