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ZEUS IN HOMEROS
Names and etymology
Other names for Zeus are Jupiter (Latin), Ammon (in Libye) and Thor (Germanic). The roots of the Greek Zeus (gen. = Dios) are Ze - and Di, related to za/zé (-life) and dies/di (-day, time). He is the creator of life, why he is called by Homer the "father of gods and men," and the creator of time. These qualifications of Zeus point to the existence of a genealogical and hierarchical order of gods, but according to De Grave (I, 13), this order is only the symbolic representation of the degrees of importance of the fundamental institutions in ancient society. In the same way, the erotic adventures of Zeus and other gods and goddesses are the memories, cast down in the myth, of historical events of great importance, of useful inventions or heroic deeds that have had a great influence on human well-being.
In the division of the weeks, the Gallo-Germans did not forget the most important god Zeus, because the name of the sixth day, which was dedicated to the cult, religion and morality, was dedicated to Jupiter. The Gaulish terms are giovedi, jeudi, jueves and others, derived from Jovis dies, and the Germanic terms are Donnerstag, donderdag, thursday, derived from Thor, toorn, tonnerre, thunder.
According to Grave III, 45, Jupiter is not a Latin name but a Germanic, derived from the superlative of über, upper, super > upperst, überst, (j) upperst > Jupiter and thus indicates that he is the highest", the highest court of law, the god of lightning and thunder and heavenly revenge.
A more traditional etymology of Jupiter is from Ju-pater, God the Father, who as the creator is one and infinite and is therefore also called As or Az.1 Ju is God, that is, Good in relation to humanity. He cares for the happiness of the people, so that he is seen as Providence, but for which he, in turn, requires submission and worship. This is the do ut des principle ( I give with the intention that you give something back') that also applies the other way around from man to god. This give a little, take a little" attitude towards the gods and vice versa is basic for ancient religion. People offer sacrifices to get something in return, just as Penelope promises to give an offering if Zeus has made a counterpart, i.e. the slaughter of the suitors (17,50)! Zeus is good and just, punishes the criminals with thunder and lightning and rewards the good now and in life after death. That is exactly the same morality that we have also found with Athena and that is still the basis of every religion.
The toorn (-wrath), the anger of heaven, may have led to the name Thor, which we find in thorsday (= thursday). Thor is also found in the Belgian town of Thorhout, which is derived from Thor and wood and thus denotes Jupiter's Forest.2 According to tradition, Thoroaldus, king of the Kimbri, would have ruled there more than 700 years before our era. The forest may have been located in the village of Wijnendaele, which can be traced to gewijd dal (-dedicated, sacred valley). Not only among the Belgians but also in Britain the name Thor is found in Thorney, the area in London where the cloister of Westminster used to be3. Minster (Munster or Monster) is a shortening of monasterium. It is called West Minster because there was also an eastern Minster on the Isle of Thanet, see Introduction Seirenes. On the site of this monastery in Thorney, meaning Thor Island, there used to be a temple of Apollo4, which shows the strong connection between Jupiter (Thor) and Apollo (Belen), which is evident also from the story of Odysseus and the cattle of Helios (book 12). When the comrades attack the cattle of Helios (=Apollo, Belen) Chief Justice Zeus punishes them terribly, see Introduction Thrinakia.
The said connection between the two gods is also evident from the following: Jupiter weighs" the destiny of the people according to Homeros. He calls it titainei (VIII, 69), a word that has the root tide and indicates the test of tidal rivers such as the Rhine and in this case the Temese (Thames). Belen is the bel-ain, the god of the purifying river Thames, see Introduction Religion
Zeus Ammon, Pergamon
The name of the famous oracle in Libye, where Alexander the Great went to find out his ancestry, was that of Jupiter Ammon, sometimes called Jupiter Hammel. Jupiter was presented here as a ram with horns (see image).
The largest ram of the flock of sheep carries a bell and is called belhammel and Jupiter is such a "belhamel", the leader of the group, the supreme god of the Elysian church (De Grave II 214). That the name Ammon comes from the Gallo-Germanic world is evident from the term amman, the name of the old pretor of Brussels, and land-amman, the name of the first magistrate of Helvetia. (H)amman can be derived from ham (pasture, land) and man and thus means "man of the pasture land" or the ram among the sheep.
Jupiter Dolichenus and Juno,
2e century AD, Vienna
There are countless nicknames of Jupiter, but there is one that is clearly linked to the Gallo-Germanic religion: Jupiter Dolichenus. A statue of this Dolichenus was found near Arles, just as statues of Mithras with a halo and of Apollo have been found on the banks of the Rhône. Dolichenus also wears a sun wreath, so he represents the sun and life and stands upright on the back of a ram (see image).
This depiction of Dolichenus was probably later transferred from Rodanus (Rhône) to Rhodos where a similar statue was made: the Colossus of Rhodos, one of the ancient wonders of the world. The priests of this god were called Telchines. Both names, Telchines and Dolichenus can be derived from the Gallo-Germanic root delgen (= to erase). They are the "erasers" or purifiers, like the Faiakans in Lanzarote, and their function is derived from the original Helic priests (PA 327).5
Origin: his birth and education
According to the myths, Jupiter is said to have been nurtured and raised on Mount Ida in Crete by the so-called Idaian Daktyles and the nymphs. There would be a second mountain of Ida in Frugia, at the foot of which Troy was built. Since in the Introduction Troy we have situated the battlefield in England near the Gog Magog Hills on the Cam near Cambridge, less than 30 km from Wash, and have identified Frugia with Northern England or, as a second area, with Flanders, while Homeros with Kreta invariably denotes Scandinavia, it is highly probable that Ida is a name from the Atlantic world, which later has been transferred to the Mediterranean and has created confusion there. See Introduction Kreta
Let us first consider the name Daktyles. Attempts to explain this name and associate it with Korybants, Kabeires or similar creatures have been unsuccessful already in ancient Greece, indicating that they refer to pre-Greek or non-Greek figures. Every high school student who had Greek as subject knows the word daktylos (litt.: finger) as the element of which the hexameter is composed, a verse with six dactyles (long-short-short). According to De Grave (I, 189), this name was therefore given to priest-poets, because they counted the measures on their fingers. As a Homeros translator, I know this is a correct argument, since I always check the verses translated into hexameters on the fingers line by line. In the Gallo-Germanic world, these poets are the so-called bards", named after their (long) beards. These old and wise men studied educational poems and epic works even for twenty years or more and memorized them to present them to the public for learning and entertainment.6
These bards or longobards" obviously have nothing to look for on a mountain or in a cave, where no inquisitive public is present. So Ida cannot originally be a mountain, at least not in the normal sense, but it can be a storage place where, for example, food or valuables are stored. It is no coincidence that on the Belgian coast near Nieuwpoort there is a port city that in Latin was called Longobardorum Ida, the current Lombardside or Lombardsijde. This place had a famous seaport, which has now been extended and is called Nieuwpoort (New Port).7 This shows that the Gallic immigrants of Northern Italy, the Longobards, originate from Flanders, where the druids and the (longo) bards were the elite.8 This village of Ida was a fishing port according to Marchantius, and the name Ida is said to be related to the English (h)ide (-storage) and means "storage place, harbour".9
Fishing has been the basis for maritime knowledge, from which trade and prosperity for the population, but also science and culture, have arisen. This shows the correctness of the words of Hera in Ilias 14,201 when she arrives at Aphrodite's to pry temptations: 'I go to the confines of the many-nourishing earth to visit Okeanos, the origin of the gods, and mother Tethus, who have educated and pampered me well in their homes .... " That the ocean and the tide (=Okeanos and Tethus) are the basis of life seems to be confirmed by modern evolutionary theories. The food earth offers to many people (polyforbos - 'nourishing many') on the banks of the Okeanos evidently consists of fish or, in a larger context, of everything transported by ship across the ocean.
Poluforbos is, therefore, essentially an equivalent to Atlantic, which is derived from Ate-land, the land that produces food, see below. The houses (domoi) where Hera and other gods grew up are in that case the houses in port cities like Longobardorum Ida. Homeros thus indicates that the origins of religion and mythology are to be found in villages of fishermen and seafarers. Hera and Zeus (Juno and Jupiter) are apparently born and raised in the same place, in the ida's, the harbours, on the Gallo-Germanic seashores of Okeanos and Thetus.
If mythology states that Zeus was born in (Greek) Crete, it means that his cult was introduced to that island at some point. The confusion about Ida arose because the bergplaats" (-storage place or depot) of the seaport Ida was regarded as a berg, a high mountain", a mistake that can only be explained from the double sens of berg" in Gallo-Germanic. Troy had a seaport too, a berg" near Wash, so that the castle of Troy where the treasures were stored was called Pergamon (= Bergplaats, storage place) and the mountain at the foot of which Troy stood the Idaberg (= Bergberg, Harbour Mountain), because that was devoted to the cult of the Idaic Jupiter and its priest-bards, the Idaic Daktyles.
In 1.30 and elsewhere, Zeus is called father of gods and men". Why is Zeus called father"? Even Poseidon, who is still considered the brother of Zeus in mythology, calls him Father" in 13,128. However, in the above fragment Hera mentions Okeanos and Tethys as the father and mother of all gods. Obviously, the term father is meant symbolically by Homeros. Zeus as patriarch symbolizes patriarchal society. He is the ata, the Gallo-Germanic term for"father" (cf. Frysk heit and Gr. Atta) from which Atalant is derived. That is, an Atlant is the father of the land, a patriarch who controls the land as a father. According to De Grave, this title was given to the director or governor because he cared for the people, just like a father takes care of his family. There is also an etymological connection to ate (Dutch eten; Eng: eat) which means food". Each ata had a duty to provide for ate (De Grave I, 71). Thus, Zeus's function as father" is determined as the supreme god who provides for the nutrition and prosperity of the people.
It is concluded that Zeus is a pre-Greek deity from the Indo-Germanic, or rather, Atlantic world, both by name and by function and origin; that its cult originated in seaports, the idas, such as in the Flemish Longobardorum Ida, and that this religion was propagated by the Idaeic Daktyles, or the druid-bards of the seacoast.
1. Compare the ace in the deck that indicates the number 1 (= God).
2. lucus consecratus deo Thor, De Grave III, 196
3. Cambden Britannia, tit. Middlesex, p. 311.
4. Sulcardus: Prologus de construccione Westmonasterii; Libellus de fundatione abbatiae Westmonasteriensis, 1080.
5. The faycans on Lanzarote are the purifying priests-kings, see Introduction Scheria.
6. The twenty years of study were mentioned by Caesar in Bello Gallico 6.16.
7. Sanderus Flandria Illustrata part II.
8. Other names in the Po Valley also stem from the Gallo-Germanic language, such as Milan from Mid-land and the old name of the Po Bodincos, which according to Pliny is derived from fundo carens (= bottomless), where Boden-los (-bottomless) is corrupted to Bodincos.
9. Marchantius De rebus Flandriae, 1567, reprint 2017.
Abbreviations used for the books of Th. Cailleux (1878):
OC Origine celtique de la civilisation de tous les peuples
PH Poésies d' Homère
PA Pays Atlantiques, decrit par Homère
Citations of Homer: Roman cyphers = Ilias, e.g. XX,345; Arabic cyphers = Odyssey, e.g. 13,34.
Bibliography Atlantic authors:
Homeros Odyssee, by Gerard Janssen, Leeuwarden 2018 = H.O.
Gideon E. Troje lag in Engeland, Deventer 1991, reprint of Homerus, zanger der Kelten, 1973
Grave Ch.J. De République des Champs Élysées, Gent 1806, 3 vols.
Oosten H. van: Trojaanse tin-oorlog en Odysseus'oceaanroute 2020 (with English summary)
Vinci F. The Baltic Origins of Homer's Epic Tales, 2005
Wilkens I.J. Where Troy once stood, 1990,
Dutch: Waar eens Troje lag, 2015 Leeuwarden